500 Vocabularies for Business English (definition and example)

Welcome to our Business English vocabulary list! This collection of 500+ essential business terms is designed to enhance your understanding and proficiency in business communication. Each term is provided with a clear definition, a Vietnamese translation, and a practical business example to help you grasp how these words are used in real-world scenarios.

Whether you are preparing for a business meeting, writing a report, or simply looking to improve your business vocabulary, this list will serve as a valuable resource. By familiarizing yourself with these terms, you will be better equipped to navigate the complexities of the business world, engage in professional discussions, and achieve your career goals.

Remember to utilize the eJOY extension and mobile app to effortlessly save and review these vocabularies in your online word books. Practice makes permanent. Now let's dive into the list, study the examples, and practice using these terms in your conversations and writings.

1. Sales & Marketing

1. Market Segmentation

  • /ˈmɑːrkɪt ˌsɛɡmɛnˈteɪʃən/
  • The process of dividing a market into distinct groups of buyers who have different needs, characteristics, or behaviors.
  • Phân khúc thị trường
  • Market segmentation helps companies tailor their marketing strategies to specific consumer groups.

2. Target Audience

  • /ˈtɑːrɡɪt ˈɔːdiəns/
  • The particular group of people at which a product or service is aimed.
  • Đối tượng mục tiêu
  • The advertisement was designed to appeal to a younger target audience.

3. Brand Awareness

  • /brænd əˈwɛərnəs/
  • The extent to which consumers are familiar with the distinctive qualities or image of a particular brand.
  • Nhận thức về thương hiệu
  • The company's brand awareness has increased significantly since launching its new advertising campaign.

4. Market Research

  • /ˈmɑːrkɪt rɪˈsɜːrtʃ/
  • The process of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting information about a market, including its consumers and competitors.
  • Nghiên cứu thị trường
  • Market research helps businesses understand customer needs and preferences.

5. Product Placement

  • /ˈprɒdʌkt ˈpleɪsmənt/
  • The practice of prominently displaying or featuring products in movies, television shows, or other media to increase visibility and promote sales.
  • Đặt sản phẩm
  • The company paid for product placement in the blockbuster movie to reach a wider audience.

6. Sales Funnel

  • /seɪlz ˈfʌnəl/
  • The buying process that companies lead customers through when purchasing products or services, typically represented as a funnel-shaped diagram.
  • Ống bán hàng
  • The sales funnel helps identify where potential customers drop off in the purchasing process.

7. Brand Loyalty

  • /brænd ˈlɔɪəlti/
  • The degree to which consumers consistently choose one brand over others and continue to purchase its products or services.
  • Sự trung thành với thương hiệu
  • The company's excellent customer service fosters brand loyalty among its customers.

8. Call to Action (CTA)

  • /kɔːl tə ˈækʃən/
  • A prompt or instruction designed to encourage an immediate response or action from the audience, often used in advertising or marketing materials.
  • Lời kêu gọi hành động
  • The email campaign included a clear call to action prompting recipients to visit the company's website.

9. Demographic

  • /ˌdɛməˈɡræfɪk/
  • Statistical data relating to the population and particular groups within it, such as age, gender, income, education, etc.
  • Nhân khẩu học
  • The marketing team analyzed demographic trends to better understand their target market.

10. Brand Image

  • /brænd ˈɪmɪdʒ/
  • The perception or impression of a brand in the minds of consumers, influenced by various factors such as advertising, packaging, and experiences.
  • Hình ảnh thương hiệu
  • The company strives to maintain a positive brand image through consistent messaging and high-quality products.

11. Competitive Analysis

  • /kəmˈpɛtɪtɪv əˈnæləsɪs/
  • The process of identifying and evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of competitors in a market to inform strategic decision-making.
  • Phân tích cạnh tranh
  • Conducting a competitive analysis helps companies identify opportunities and threats in the market.

12. Value Proposition

  • /ˈvæljuː ˌprɒpəˈzɪʃən/
  • The unique benefit or promise that a product or service offers to customers, distinguishing it from competitors.
  • Cam kết giá trị
  • The company's value proposition emphasizes affordability and convenience for its customers.

13. Advertising Campaign

  • /ˈædvərˌtaɪzɪŋ kæmˈpeɪn/
  • A coordinated series of advertisements and promotional activities that communicate a consistent message or theme to achieve specific marketing objectives.
  • Chiến dịch quảng cáo
  • The advertising campaign increased brand awareness and drove sales of the new product.

14. Customer Engagement

  • /ˈkʌstəmər ɪnˈɡeɪdʒmənt/
  • The interaction and involvement of customers with a brand or company, often through social media, feedback, or other communication channels.
  • Sự tương tác với khách hàng
  • The company uses social media platforms to foster customer engagement and build brand loyalty.

15. Marketing Strategy  

  • /ˈmɑːrkɪtɪŋ ˈstrætədʒi/
  • A comprehensive plan outlining the approach and tactics a company will use to reach its target market and achieve its marketing objectives.
  • Chiến lược tiếp thị
  • Developing a strong marketing strategy is essential for effectively reaching and engaging with customers.

16. Brand Ambassador

  • /brænd ˈæmbəsədər/
  • An individual, typically a celebrity or influencer, who is hired or appointed to represent and promote a brand's products or services.
  • Đại sứ thương hiệu
  • The brand ambassador's endorsement helped increase brand visibility and credibility among consumers.

17. Customer Relationship Management (CRM)

  • /ˈkʌstəmər rɪˈleɪʃənʃɪp ˈmænɪdʒmənt/
  • The process of managing interactions and relationships with customers throughout their lifecycle, with the goal of improving customer satisfaction and loyalty.
  • Quản lý mối quan hệ khách hàng
  • Implementing a CRM system allows companies to track customer interactions and provide personalized experiences.

18. Guerrilla Marketing

  • /ɡəˈrɪlə ˈmɑːrkɪtɪŋ/
  • A marketing strategy that relies on unconventional methods and low-cost tactics to promote a product or service in unexpected ways.
  • Tiếp thị du kích
  • The guerrilla marketing campaign created buzz and excitement around the brand's new product launch.

19. Sales Forecasting

  • /seɪlz ˈfɔːˌkæstɪŋ/
  • The process of estimating future sales based on historical data, market trends, and other relevant factors.
  • Dự báo doanh số
  • Accurate sales forecasting helps businesses plan inventory, production, and marketing strategies.

20. Product Differentiation

  • /ˈprɒdʌkt ˌdɪfəˌrɛnʃɪˈeɪʃən/
  • The strategy of making a product or service appear distinct or unique from others in the market to attract customers.
  • Phân biệt sản phẩm
  • Effective product differentiation can help a company command premium prices and build brand loyalty.

21. Lead Generation

  • /liːd ˌdʒɛnəˈreɪʃən/
  • The process of attracting and converting prospects into potential customers.
  • Tạo nguồn khách hàng tiềm năng
  • The company's lead generation efforts resulted in a significant increase in sales inquiries.

22. Market Penetration

  • /ˈmɑːrkɪt ˌpɛnɪˈtreɪʃən/
  • The extent to which a product is recognized and bought by customers in a particular market.
  • Thâm nhập thị trường
  • The new product achieved rapid market penetration, capturing a large share of the target market.

23. Promotional Strategy

  • /prəˈməʊʃənl ˈstrætədʒi/
  • A plan outlining how a company will promote its products or services to target customers, typically involving advertising, sales promotions, and public relations.
  • Chiến lược khuyến mãi
  • The company developed a promotional strategy to increase brand awareness and drive sales.

24. Customer Acquisition Cost (CAC)

  • /ˈkʌstəmər ˌækwɪˈzɪʃən kɒst/
  • The cost a company incurs to acquire a new customer, including marketing and sales expenses.
  • Chi phí thu hút khách hàng mới
  • Calculating the customer acquisition cost helps businesses evaluate the effectiveness of their marketing campaigns.

25. Brand Equity

  • /brænd ˈɛkwɪti/
  • The value of a brand based on consumer perceptions, loyalty, and awareness.
  • Giá trị thương hiệu
  • Building brand equity is essential for establishing a strong competitive advantage in the market.

26. Cross-Selling

  • /krɒs ˈsɛlɪŋ/
  • The practice of selling additional products or services to existing customers.
  • Bán hàng chéo
  • The sales team implemented a cross-selling strategy to increase revenue from existing customers.

27. Upselling

  • /ʌpˈsɛlɪŋ/
  • The technique of persuading a customer to purchase a more expensive or premium version of a product or service.
  • Bán hàng bổ sung
  • The salesperson successfully upsold the customer to a higher-tier product with additional features.

28. Call Center

  • /kɔːl ˈsɛntər/
  • A centralized office or facility equipped to handle a large volume of telephone inquiries and customer support services.
  • Trung tâm dịch vụ khách hàng
  • The call center provides 24/7 support to assist customers with product inquiries and issues.

29. Sales Pipeline

  • /seɪlz ˈpaɪpˌlaɪn/
  • A visual representation of the stages that potential customers move through before making a purchase, from initial contact to closing the deal.
  • Quy trình bán hàng
  • Managing the sales pipeline helps sales teams prioritize leads and focus efforts on closing deals.

2. Financial Management

1. Revenue

  • /ˈrɛvəˌnjuː/
  • The income generated from the sale of goods or services.
  • Doanh thu
  • The company's revenue increased by 20% compared to last year.

2. Expenses

  • /ɪkˈspɛnsɪz/
  • The costs incurred in the process of generating revenue.
  • Chi phí
  • Managing expenses is crucial for maintaining profitability.

3. Profit

  • /ˈprɒfɪt/
  • The financial gain resulting from revenue exceeding expenses.
  • Lợi nhuận
  • The company reported a significant increase in profit margins.

4. Loss

  • /lɒs/
  • The negative financial result when expenses exceed revenue.
  • Lỗ
  • The business experienced a loss in the last quarter due to unexpected expenses.

5. Cash Flow

  • /kæʃ floʊ/
  • The movement of money in and out of a business over a specific period.
  • Dòng tiền
  • Managing cash flow effectively ensures the business has enough liquidity to cover expenses.

6. Budget

  • /ˈbʌdʒɪt/
  • A financial plan that outlines expected revenues and expenses over a specific period.
  • Ngân sách
  • The company prepared an annual budget to allocate resources efficiently.

7. Balance Sheet

  • /ˈbæləns ʃiːt/
  • A financial statement that shows a company's assets, liabilities, and equity at a specific point in time.
  • Bảng cân đối kế toán
  • Analyzing the balance sheet helps investors assess the financial health of a company.

8. Income Statement

  • /ˈɪnkʌm ˈstetmənt/
  • A financial statement that summarizes a company's revenues, expenses, and profits over a specific period.
  • Báo cáo lãi lỗ
  • The income statement provides insights into a company's profitability.

9. Depreciation

  • /dɪˌpriːʃiˈeɪʃən/
  • A method of allocating the cost of tangible assets over their useful lives.
  • Khấu hao
  • Depreciation expense reduces the book value of assets over time.

10. Amortization

  • /əˌmɔːrtɪˈzeɪʃən/
  • The process of spreading the cost of intangible assets over their useful lives.
  • Khấu hao trái phiếu
  • The company amortizes the cost of its patents over a 10-year period.

11. Liquidity

  • /lɪˈkwɪdɪti/
  • The ability of a company to meet its short-term obligations with its current assets.
  • Tính thanh khoản
  • Maintaining adequate liquidity is essential for covering unexpected expenses.

12. Solvency

  • /ˈsɒlvənsi/
  • The ability of a company to meet its long-term financial obligations.
  • Tính khả năng thanh toán
  • Investors assess a company's solvency before making long-term investments.

13. Return on Investment (ROI)

  • /rɪˈtɜrn ɒn ɪnˈvɛstmənt/
  • A measure of the profitability of an investment, calculated by dividing the net profit by the initial investment.
  • Tỷ suất sinh lời
  • The ROI of the project exceeded expectations, resulting in significant returns for investors.

14. Gross Profit

  • /ɡroʊs ˈprɒfɪt/
  • The profit a company makes after deducting the cost of goods sold from revenue.
  • Lợi nhuận gộp
  • Increasing gross profit margins is a key focus for the company.

15. Net Profit

  • /nɛt ˈprɒfɪt/
  • The profit remaining after all expenses, including taxes and interest, have been deducted from revenue.
  • Lợi nhuận sau thuế
  • The company's net profit increased by 15% compared to last year.

16. Break-even Point

  • /breɪkˈiːvən pɔɪnt/
  • The level of sales at which total revenue equals total expenses, resulting in neither profit nor loss.
  • Điểm hòa vốn
  • The company needs to sell 1,000 units to reach the break-even point.

17. Capital Expenditure (Capex)

  • /ˈkæpɪtəl ɪkˈspɛndɪtʃər/
  • Funds spent by a company to acquire or upgrade physical assets such as property, plant, and equipment.
  • Chi phí cố định
  • The board approved a significant capital expenditure to expand production capacity.

18. Operating Expenses

  • /ˈɒpəˌreɪtɪŋ ɪkˈspɛnsɪz/
  • The ongoing costs incurred in the day-to-day operations of a business.
  • Chi phí hoạt động
  • Managing operating expenses is essential for maintaining profitability.

19. Accounts Receivable

  • /əˈkaʊnts rɪˈsivəbəl/
  • The amount of money owed to a company by its customers for goods or services provided on credit.
  • Công nợ phải thu
  • The finance department monitors accounts receivable to ensure timely payment from customers.

20. Accounts Payable

  • /əˈkaʊnts ˈpeɪəbl/
  • The amount of money owed by a company to its suppliers or creditors for goods or services purchased on credit.
  • Công nợ phải trả
  • The company's accounts payable increased due to higher purchases from suppliers.

21. Asset

  • /ˈæsɛt/
  • Anything of value owned by a company, such as cash, inventory, property, or investments.
  • Tài sản
  • The company's total assets include both tangible and intangible assets.

22. Liability

  • /ˌlaɪəˈbɪlɪti/
  • A company's legal financial obligations or debts that arise during the course of business operations.
  • Nghĩa vụ
  • Long-term liabilities include loans, bonds, and mortgages payable over multiple years.

23. Equity

  • /ˈɛkwɪti/
  • The value of a company's assets minus its liabilities, representing the ownership interest of shareholders.
  • Cổ phần
  • Equity investors receive dividends and have voting rights in major company decisions.

24. Cash Flow Statement

  • /kæʃ floʊ ˈsteɪtmənt/
  • A financial statement that shows how changes in balance sheet accounts and income affect cash and cash equivalents.
  • Báo cáo dòng tiền
  • Analyzing the cash flow statement helps assess a company's liquidity.

25. Financial Ratios

  • /faɪˈnænʃəl ˈreɪʃioʊz/
  • Mathematical calculations used to evaluate a company's financial performance and health.
  • Chỉ số tài chính
  • Investors use financial ratios to compare companies and make investment decisions.

26. Return on Assets (ROA)

  • /rɪˈtɜrn ɒn ˈæsɛts/
  • A financial ratio that measures a company's profitability relative to its total assets.
  • Tỷ suất sinh lợi về tài sản
  • A higher ROA indicates better asset utilization and profitability.

27. Return on Equity (ROE)

  • /rɪˈtɜrn ɒn ˈɛkwɪti/
  • A financial ratio that measures a company's profitability relative to shareholders' equity.
  • Tỷ suất sinh lợi về vốn chủ sở hữu
  • A high ROE signifies efficient use of shareholder funds to generate profits.

28. Financial Forecasting

  • /faɪˈnænʃəl ˈfɔːrˌkæstɪŋ/
  • The process of predicting future financial performance based on historical data and analysis.
  • Dự báo tài chính
  • Financial forecasting helps companies plan budgets and make strategic decisions.

29. Cost of Goods Sold (COGS)

  • /kɒst əv ɡʊdz soʊld/
  • The direct costs associated with producing goods sold by a company, including materials and labor.
  • Chi phí hàng bán được
  • Calculating COGS is essential for determining a product's profitability.

30. Working Capital

  • /ˈwɜːrkɪŋ ˈkæpɪtl/
  • The difference between current assets and current liabilities, representing the funds available for day-to-day operations.
  • Vốn lưu động
  • Maintaining adequate working capital ensures smooth business operations and financial stability.

3. Business Operations

1. Supply Chain

  • /səˈplaɪ tʃeɪn/
  • The sequence of processes involved in the production and distribution of goods.
  • Chuỗi cung ứng
  • The company optimized its supply chain to reduce delivery times.

2. Inventory Management

  • /ˈɪnvəntri ˈmænɪdʒmənt/
  • The process of efficiently overseeing the ordering, storage, and use of inventory.
  • Quản lý tồn kho
  • Effective inventory management minimizes stockouts and excess inventory.

3. Outsourcing

  • /ˈaʊtsɔːrsɪŋ/
  • The practice of obtaining goods or services from an outside supplier.
  • Thuê ngoài
  • Many companies outsource their customer service to reduce costs.

4. Logistics

  • /ləˈdʒɪstɪks/
  • The management of the flow of goods between the point of origin and the point of consumption.
  • Vận chuyển hàng hóa
  • Efficient logistics ensure timely delivery of products to customers.

5. Lean Manufacturing

  • /liːn ˌmænjuˈfæktʃərɪŋ/
  • A production method aimed at minimizing waste while maintaining efficiency.
  • Sản xuất gọn
  • Implementing lean manufacturing principles reduced production costs.

6. Quality Control

  • /ˈkwɒlɪti kənˈtrəʊl/
  • The process of ensuring that products or services meet specified requirements and standards.
  • Kiểm soát chất lượng
  • Stringent quality control measures ensure consistent product quality.

7. Production Line

  • /prəˈdʌkʃən laɪn/
  • A series of sequential operations involved in manufacturing a product.
  • Dây chuyền sản xuất
  • The new production line increased efficiency and output.

8. Capacity Planning

  • /kəˈpæsəti ˈplænɪŋ/
  • The process of determining the production capacity needed to meet demand.
  • Lập kế hoạch năng lực
  • Capacity planning prevents underutilization or overutilization of resources.

9. Just-in-Time (JIT)

  • /ˈdʒʌst ɪn taɪm/
  • A strategy aimed at minimizing inventory by receiving goods only when they are needed.
  • Đúng thời điểm
  • JIT manufacturing reduces storage costs and waste.

10. Six Sigma

  • /sɪks ˈsɪɡmə/
  • A methodology focused on improving processes and reducing defects to achieve near-perfect results.
  • Sáu sigma
  • The company implemented Six Sigma to enhance product quality.

11. Business Process Reengineering (BPR)

  • /ˈbɪznɪs ˈprɒsɛs ˌriːɪnˈdʒɪnɪərɪŋ/
  • The redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in performance and efficiency.
  • Tái thiết kế quy trình kinh doanh
  • BPR led to significant cost savings and streamlined operations.

12. Facility Management

  • /fəˈsɪlɪti ˈmænɪdʒmənt/
  • The management of buildings, equipment, and other physical assets to ensure efficient operation.
  • Quản lý cơ sở vật chất
  • Facility management includes maintenance, security, and space planning.

13. Product Development

  • /ˈprɒdʌkt dɪˈvɛləpmənt/
  • The process of creating or improving products to meet customer needs and preferences.
  • Phát triển sản phẩm
  • Product development requires market research and collaboration across departments.

14. Business Continuity Planning (BCP)

  • /ˈbɪznɪs kənˌtɪnjuˈɪti ˈplænɪŋ/
  • The process of developing strategies to ensure essential business functions can continue during and after a disaster.
  • Kế hoạch duy trì kinh doanh
  • BCP minimizes disruptions and ensures resilience in the face of adversity.

15. Procurement

  • /prəˈkjʊəmənt/
  • The process of acquiring goods or services from external sources.
  • Mua sắm
  • Effective procurement strategies optimize costs and ensure quality.

16. Job Design

  • /dʒɒb dɪˈzaɪn/
  • The process of structuring and organizing tasks, responsibilities, and roles within a job.
  • Thiết kế công việc
  • Job design impacts employee productivity and satisfaction.

17. Risk Management

  • /rɪsk ˈmænɪdʒmənt/
  • The identification, assessment, and mitigation of risks that could negatively impact business operations.
  • Quản lý rủi ro
  • Risk management strategies minimize the likelihood and impact of potential threats.

18. Workflow

  • /ˈwɜːkfləʊ/
  • The sequence of tasks or processes that constitute a business operation.
  • Luồng công việc
  • Optimizing workflow improves efficiency and reduces delays.

19. Customer Service

  • /ˈkʌstəmər ˈsɜːrvɪs/
  • The assistance and support provided to customers before, during, and after purchasing products or services.
  • Dịch vụ khách hàng
  • Exceptional customer service enhances brand reputation and loyalty.

20. Business Process Improvement (BPI)

  • /ˈbɪznɪs ˈprɒsɛs ɪmˈpruːvmənt/
  • The systematic approach to enhancing processes to achieve better results.
  • Cải thiện quy trình kinh doanh
  • BPI involves analyzing workflows and implementing changes for efficiency.

21. Business Process Automation

  • /ˈbɪznɪs ˈprɒsɛs ɔːtəˈmeɪʃən/
  • The use of technology to streamline and automate repetitive tasks and processes.
  • Tự động hóa quy trình kinh doanh
  • Business process automation increases efficiency and reduces human error.

22. Facility Layout

  • /fəˈsɪlɪti ˈleɪˌaʊt/
  • The arrangement of equipment, machinery, and work areas within a facility to optimize productivity.
  • Bố trí cơ sở vật chất
  • A well-designed facility layout improves workflow and reduces bottlenecks.

23. Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)

  • /ˈstændərd ˈɒpəreɪtɪŋ prəˈsiːdʒərz/
  • Established guidelines or instructions for performing routine tasks and operations.
  • Quy trình hoạt động tiêu chuẩn
  • SOPs ensure consistency and efficiency in business operations.

24. Business Process Outsourcing (BPO)

  • /ˈbɪznɪs ˈprɒsɛs ˈaʊtsɔːrsɪŋ/
  • The delegation of specific business processes to external service providers.
  • Thuê ngoài quy trình kinh doanh
  • BPO allows companies to focus on core activities while leveraging specialized expertise.

25. Performance Metrics

  • /pəˈfɔːrməns ˈmɛtrɪks/
  • Quantifiable measures used to assess the performance and effectiveness of business operations.
  • Chỉ số hiệu suất
  • Performance metrics help identify areas for improvement and track progress towards goals.

26. Capacity Utilization

  • /kəˈpæsɪti ˌjuːtɪlaɪˈzeɪʃən/
  • The extent to which a company's production capacity is being used to fulfill demand.
  • Sử dụng công suất
  • Maximizing capacity utilization optimizes resource allocation and minimizes costs.

27. Continuous Improvement

  • /kənˈtɪnjuəs ɪmˈpruːvmənt/
  • The ongoing effort to enhance products, services, or processes incrementally over time.
  • Cải tiến liên tục
  • Continuous improvement fosters innovation and ensures long-term competitiveness.

4. Human Resources Management

1. Recruitment

  • /rɪˈkruːtmənt/
  • The process of finding, attracting, and selecting qualified candidates for job vacancies.
  • Tuyển dụng
  • The HR department is responsible for recruitment to fill open positions.

2. Resume

  • /ˈrɛzjuːm/
  • A document summarizing an individual's education, work experience, skills, and accomplishments, typically used when applying for a job.
  • Sơ yếu lý lịch
  • Submit your resume along with a cover letter when applying for the position.

3. Interview

  • /ˈɪntəvjuː/
  • A formal meeting between a candidate and one or more representatives of an organization to assess suitability for a job.
  • Phỏng vấn
  • The candidate performed well during the job interview.

4. Onboarding

  • /ˈɒnbɔːdɪŋ/
  • The process of integrating new employees into an organization and providing them with the information, tools, and resources they need to succeed.
  • Tiếp nhận nhân sự mới
  • Effective onboarding improves employee retention and productivity.

5. Training

  • /ˈtreɪnɪŋ/
  • The process of teaching employees the skills and knowledge required to perform their job effectively.
  • Đào tạo
  • New employees undergo training to familiarize themselves with company policies and procedures.

6. Performance Appraisal

  • /pəˈfɔːməns əˈpreɪzəl/
  • The process of evaluating an employee's job performance against predefined criteria and providing feedback.
  • Đánh giá hiệu suất làm việc
  • Annual performance appraisals help identify areas for improvement and development.

7. Employee Engagement

  • /ˌɛmplɔɪˈiː ɛnˈɡeɪdʒmənt/
  • The emotional commitment employees have to their work and the organization, reflected in their willingness to go above and beyond.
  • Tương tác nhân viên
  • Employee engagement is essential for fostering a positive work culture.

8. Compensation

  • /kəmˌpɛnˈseɪʃən/
  • The total rewards, including salary, bonuses, and benefits, provided to employees in exchange for their work.
  • Bồi thường
  • The company offers competitive compensation packages to attract top talent.

9. Benefits

  • /ˈbɛnɪfɪts/
  • Non-monetary rewards provided to employees, such as health insurance, retirement plans, and paid time off.
  • Phúc lợi
  • The company offers comprehensive benefits to support employee well-being.

10. Job Description

  • /dʒɒb dɪˈskrɪpʃən/
  • A written statement outlining the duties, responsibilities, qualifications, and expectations of a job.
  • Mô tả công việc
  • Review the job description carefully before applying for the position.

11. Diversity and Inclusion

  • /daɪˈvɜːsɪti ænd ɪnˈkluːʒən/
  • The practice of creating a workplace culture that values and respects individual differences and promotes equal opportunities for all employees.
  • Đa dạng và sự bao dung
  • Diversity and inclusion initiatives promote innovation and creativity.

12. Termination

  • /ˌtɜːmɪˈneɪʃən/
  • The act of ending an employee's employment with an organization, either voluntarily or involuntarily.
  • Chấm dứt hợp đồng lao động
  • The company conducted an investigation leading to the termination of the employee.

13. Employee Relations

  • /ˌɪmplɔɪˈiː rɪˈleɪʃənz/
  • The management of relationships between employees and employers, focusing on communication, conflict resolution, and workplace culture.
  • Quan hệ lao động
  • Effective employee relations contribute to a positive work environment.

14. Talent Management

  • /ˈtælənt ˈmænɪdʒmənt/
  • The strategic process of attracting, developing, and retaining talented individuals to meet current and future organizational needs.
  • Quản lý tài năng
  • Talent management is essential for maintaining a competitive advantage.

15. Succession Planning

  • /səkˈsɛʃən ˈplænɪŋ/
  • The process of identifying and developing internal employees with the potential to fill key leadership positions within the organization.
  • Lập kế hoạch kế thừa
  • Succession planning ensures continuity and stability in leadership roles.

16. Conflict Resolution

  • /ˈkɒnflɪkt ˌrɛzəˈluːʃən/
  • The process of addressing and resolving disputes or disagreements between individuals or groups within an organization.
  • Giải quyết mâu thuẫn
  • Effective conflict resolution techniques promote collaboration and harmony in the workplace.

17. Employee Handbook

  • /ˌɛmplɔɪˈiː ˈhændˌbʊk/
  • A document outlining the policies, procedures, and expectations of an organization regarding employee behavior and conduct.
  • Sổ tay nhân viên
  • New employees are required to read and acknowledge receipt of the employee handbook.

18. Flexible Work Arrangements

  • /ˈflɛksəbl wɜːk əˈreɪndʒmənts/
  • Alternative work schedules or arrangements that allow employees to balance work and personal responsibilities.
  • Sắp xếp làm việc linh hoạt
  • Flexible work arrangements can improve work-life balance and employee satisfaction.

19. Employee Benefits Enrollment

  • /ˌɛmplɔɪˈiː ˈbɛnɪfɪts ɪnˈrəʊlmənt/
  • The process of enrolling in or selecting employee benefits offered by an organization, such as health insurance and retirement plans.
  • Đăng ký phúc lợi cho nhân viên
  • Employees must complete the benefits enrollment process during the onboarding period.

20. Employee Satisfaction

  • /ɪmˈplɔɪiː sætɪsˈfækʃən/
  • The extent to which employees are content with their job, work environment, and overall experience at the organization.
  • Sự hài lòng của nhân viên
  • Regular employee satisfaction surveys help identify areas for improvement.

21. Workforce Planning

  • /ˈwɜːrkfɔːrs ˈplænɪŋ/
  • The strategic process of aligning workforce capabilities with organizational goals and objectives.
  • Lập kế hoạch nhân sự
  • Workforce planning ensures the organization has the right talent in the right positions.

22. Employee Development

  • /ɪmˈplɔɪiː dɪˈvɛləpmənt/
  • The process of providing opportunities for employees to acquire new skills, knowledge, and competencies to enhance their performance and career progression.
  • Phát triển nhân viên
  • Employee development programs promote professional growth and retention.

23. Job Satisfaction

  • /dʒɒb sætɪsˈfækʃən/
  • The level of contentment or fulfillment an individual experiences in their job role.
  • Sự hài lòng trong công việc
  • Job satisfaction contributes to employee motivation and engagement.

24. Performance Management

  • /pəˈfɔːməns ˈmænɪdʒmənt/
  • The ongoing process of setting goals, providing feedback, evaluating performance, and rewarding or addressing areas for improvement.
  • Quản lý hiệu suất
  • Performance management ensures alignment with organizational objectives and expectations.

25. Diversity Training

  • /daɪˈvɜːrsɪti ˈtreɪnɪŋ/
  • Educational programs designed to increase awareness and understanding of diversity, equity, and inclusion in the workplace.
  • Đào tạo đa dạng
  • Diversity training promotes a culture of respect and inclusivity.

26. Turnover Rate

  • /ˈtɜːrnˌoʊvər reɪt/
  • The percentage of employees who leave an organization within a certain period, typically calculated annually.
  • Tỷ lệ nghỉ việc
  • High turnover rates can indicate underlying issues with recruitment, retention, or workplace culture.

27. Succession Development

  • /səkˈsɛʃən dɪˈvɛləpmənt/
  • The process of identifying and preparing internal candidates to fill key leadership positions in the future.
  • Phát triển kế thừa
  • Succession development ensures a pipeline of talent for critical roles.

28. Employee Recognition

  • /ɪmˈplɔɪiː ˌrɛkəɡˈnɪʃən/
  • Acknowledgment and appreciation of employee contributions, achievements, and milestones.
  • Nhận diện nhân viên
  • Employee recognition programs boost morale and motivation.

29. Job Rotation

  • /dʒɒb rəʊˈteɪʃən/
  • The practice of moving employees between different roles or departments within an organization to broaden their skills and experiences.
  • Xoay vòng công việc
  • Job rotation enhances employee versatility and engagement.

5. International Business

1. Globalization

  • /ˌɡloʊbəlaɪˈzeɪʃən/
  • The process of increasing interconnectedness and interdependence among countries, economies, and cultures.
  • Toàn cầu hóa
  • Globalization has led to increased trade and cultural exchange between nations.

2. Export

  • /ˈɛkspɔːrt/
  • The sale of goods or services produced in one country to customers in another country.
  • Xuất khẩu
  • The company plans to expand its export business to new markets.

3. Import

  • /ˈɪmˌpɔːrt/
  • The purchase of goods or services from foreign sources and bringing them into one's own country.
  • Nhập khẩu
  • The country relies heavily on imports for certain raw materials.

4. Trade Barrier

  • /treɪd ˈbærɪər/
  • Any government policy or regulation that restricts or impedes international trade.
  • Rào cản thương mại
  • Tariffs and quotas are examples of trade barriers.

5. Tariff

  • /ˈtærɪf/
  • A tax or duty imposed on imported or exported goods by a government.
  • Thuế nhập khẩu
  • The government imposed tariffs on imported steel to protect domestic producers.

6. Free Trade Agreement (FTA)

  • /friː treɪd əˈɡriːmənt/
  • An agreement between two or more countries to reduce or eliminate trade barriers and tariffs on goods and services.
  • Hiệp định Thương mại Tự do
  • The countries signed a free trade agreement to promote economic cooperation.

7. Exchange Rate

  • /ɪksˈtʃeɪndʒ reɪt/
  • The value of one currency expressed in terms of another currency.
  • Tỷ giá hối đoái
  • Fluctuations in the exchange rate can affect the cost of imports and exports.

8. Currency

  • /ˈkʌrənsi/
  • The system of money used in a particular country or region.
  • Đơn vị tiền tệ
  • The euro is the official currency of the European Union.

9. Multinational Corporation (MNC)

  • /ˌmʌltiˈnæʃənl kɔːrˈpəreɪʃən/
  • A corporation that operates in multiple countries and has production or service facilities outside its home country.
  • Tập đoàn đa quốc gia
  • Many multinational corporations have headquarters in one country and subsidiaries in others.

10. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)

  • /ˈfɔːrɪn daɪˈrekt ɪnˈvɛstmənt/
  • Investment made by a company or individual in the business interests of another country.
  • Đầu tư trực tiếp nước ngoài
  • The government encourages foreign direct investment to stimulate economic growth.

11. Offshoring

  • /ˈɒfʃɔːrɪŋ/
  • The relocation of business operations or services to a foreign country, typically to reduce costs.
  • Đưa việc ra nước ngoài
  • The company offshored its manufacturing operations to take advantage of lower wages.

12. Licensing

  • /ˈlaɪsənsɪŋ/
  • A business arrangement in which a company grants permission to another company to use its intellectual property, such as patents or trademarks, in exchange for royalties or fees.
  • Cấp phép
  • The software company entered into a licensing agreement with a foreign firm to market its products abroad.

13. Joint Venture

  • /dʒɔɪnt ˈvɛntʃər/
  • A business arrangement in which two or more parties collaborate to undertake a specific project, venture, or business activity, sharing resources, risks, profits, and control.
  • Liên doanh
  • The joint venture between the two companies enabled them to enter new markets and pool their expertise and resources.

14. Trade Surplus

  • /treɪd ˈsɜːrpləs/
  • A situation in which a country exports more goods and services than it imports, resulting in a positive balance of trade.
  • Thặng dư thương mại
  • The country's trade surplus has strengthened its currency.

15. Trade Deficit

  • /treɪd ˈdɛfɪsɪt/
  • A situation in which a country imports more goods and services than it exports, resulting in a negative balance of trade.
  • Thiếu hụt thương mại
  • The trade deficit has put pressure on the country's currency.

16. Embargo

  • /ˈɛmbɑːrɡoʊ/
  • A government-imposed restriction on trade in certain goods or with specific countries, often for political reasons.
  • Lệnh cấm vận
  • The embargo on oil exports severely impacted the country's economy.

17. Dumping

  • /ˈdʌmpɪŋ/
  • The practice of selling goods in a foreign market at a price lower than their production cost, often to gain market share or drive competitors out of business.
  • Bán phá giá
  • The government imposed anti-dumping tariffs to protect domestic industries.

18. Trade Agreement

  • /treɪd əˈɡriːmənt/
  • A pact or treaty between two or more countries to regulate and facilitate trade, often by reducing tariffs and other trade barriers.
  • Hiệp định thương mại
  • The trade agreement between the two countries boosted bilateral trade.

19. International Trade Law

  • /ˌɪntərˈnæʃənl treɪd lɔː/
  • The body of legal rules and regulations that govern international trade, including treaties, agreements, and dispute resolution mechanisms.
  • Luật thương mại quốc tế
  • Understanding international trade law is essential for companies engaged in cross-border commerce.

20. Exchange Rate Risk

  • /ɪksˈtʃeɪndʒ reɪt rɪsk/
  • The risk that changes in exchange rates between currencies will negatively affect the value of financial transactions denominated in foreign currencies.
  • Rủi ro tỷ giá hối đoái
  • Multinational corporations hedge against exchange rate risk to protect their profits.

21. Cultural Sensitivity

  • /ˈkʌlʧərəl ˌsɛnsəˈtɪvɪti/
  • The awareness, understanding, and respect for cultural differences and nuances when conducting business in foreign markets.
  • Nhạy cảm văn hóa
  • Cultural sensitivity is crucial for successful international business relations.

22. Export Subsidy

  • /ˈɛkspɔːrt ˈsʌbsɪdi/
  • Financial assistance provided by a government to domestic producers to encourage or support exports.
  • Chi trợ cấp xuất khẩu
  • The government offers export subsidies to promote the country's exports.

23. Import Quota

  • /ˈɪmpɔːrt ˈkwəʊtə/
  • A limit set by a government on the quantity or value of certain goods that can be imported into a country during a specific period.
  • Hạn mức nhập khẩu
  • The government imposed import quotas to protect domestic industries from foreign competition.

6. Supply Chain Management

1. Supplier

  • /səˈplaɪər/
  • A company or individual that provides goods or services to another company.
  • Nhà cung cấp
  • We need to find a reliable supplier for our raw materials.

2. Demand Forecasting

  • /dɪˈmænd ˈfɔːrkæstɪŋ/
  • The process of predicting future demand for products or services based on historical data and market trends.
  • Dự báo nhu cầu
  • Accurate demand forecasting helps companies optimize inventory levels.

3. Distribution

  • /ˌdɪstrɪˈbjuːʃən/
  • The process of delivering products from the manufacturer to the end consumer.
  • Phân phối
  • The distribution network spans multiple regions.

4. Warehousing

  • /ˈwɛəhaʊzɪŋ/
  • The storage of goods in a warehouse or distribution center before they are distributed to customers.
  • Việc lưu trữ hàng hóa
  • The company invested in automated warehousing systems to improve efficiency.

5. Just-in-Time (JIT)

  • /ˈdʒʌst ɪn taɪm/
  • A strategy aimed at minimizing inventory by receiving goods only when they are needed.
  • Đúng thời điểm
  • JIT manufacturing reduces storage costs and waste.

6. Transportation

  • /ˌtrænspɔːrˈteɪʃən/
  • The movement of goods from one location to another, typically using trucks, ships, trains, or airplanes.
  • Vận tải
  • Transportation costs can significantly impact supply chain efficiency.

7. Reverse Logistics

  • /rɪˈvɜːrs ləˈdʒɪstɪks/
  • The process of managing the return of goods from the end consumer to the manufacturer or supplier.
  • Logistics quy hồi
  • Effective reverse logistics minimize costs and environmental impact.

8. Lead Time

  • /liːd taɪm/
  • The amount of time between placing an order and receiving the goods.
  • Thời gian sản xuất
  • Shortening lead times improves customer satisfaction.

9. Supply Chain Integration

  • /səˈplaɪ tʃeɪn ˌɪntɪˈɡreɪʃən/
  • The coordination and alignment of different entities within the supply chain to improve efficiency and effectiveness.
  • Tích hợp chuỗi cung ứng
  • Supply chain integration enhances visibility and collaboration.

10. Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI)

  • /ˈvɛndɔː mænɪd ˈɪnvəntri/
  • A system in which the supplier manages the inventory levels at the customer's location.
  • Quản lý hàng tồn kho của nhà cung cấp
  • VMI reduces inventory holding costs for the customer.

11. RFID (Radio-Frequency Identification)

  • /ˈɑːr fɪd/
  • A technology that uses radio waves to identify and track objects, such as inventory items, in real-time.
  • Công nghệ nhận dạng tần số vô tuyến
  • RFID technology improves inventory visibility and accuracy.

12. Cross-Docking

  • /krɒsˈdɒkɪŋ/
  • The process of unloading goods from incoming trucks or containers and loading them directly onto outbound trucks with minimal storage in between.
  • Kỹ thuật bỏ qua lưu trữ hàng
  • Cross-docking reduces handling costs and lead times.

13. Supply Chain Risk Management

  • /səˈplaɪ tʃeɪn rɪsk ˈmænɪdʒmənt/
  • The process of identifying, assessing, and mitigating risks that could disrupt the flow of goods or services within the supply chain.
  • Quản lý rủi ro chuỗi cung ứng
  • Effective supply chain risk management ensures business continuity.

14. Supply Chain Visibility

  • /səˈplaɪ tʃeɪn ˌvɪzəˈbɪlɪti/
  • The ability to track and monitor the movement of goods, information, and finances across the entire supply chain in real-time.
  • Khả năng hiển thị chuỗi cung ứng
  • Improved supply chain visibility facilitates better decision-making and risk management.

15. Intermodal Transportation

  • /ˌɪntərˈmoʊdəl ˌtrænspɔːrˈteɪʃən/
  • The transportation of goods using multiple modes of transportation, such as rail, truck, and ship, without handling the cargo itself.
  • Vận tải đa phương thức
  • Intermodal transportation offers cost savings and environmental benefits.

16. Dock Appointment Scheduling

  • /dɒk əˈpɔɪntmənt ˈskɛdʒuːlɪŋ/
  • The process of scheduling specific times for trucks to arrive at loading docks for efficient loading and unloading operations.
  • Lên lịch hẹn giao hàng
  • Dock appointment scheduling reduces congestion and wait times at distribution centers.

17. Economic Order Quantity (EOQ)

  • /ˌiːkəˈnɒmɪk ˈɔːrdər ˈkwɒntɪti/
  • The optimal quantity of inventory that minimizes total inventory costs, including holding costs and ordering costs.
  • Số lượng đặt hàng kinh tế
  • Calculating EOQ helps organizations optimize inventory levels and reduce carrying costs.

18. Bullwhip Effect

  • /ˈbʊlˌwɪp ɪˈfɛkt/
  • The phenomenon in supply chain management where small fluctuations in demand at the consumer level result in amplified fluctuations upstream in the supply chain.
  • Hiệu ứng roi búa
  • Minimizing the bullwhip effect requires better communication and coordination among supply chain partners.

19. Cross-Functional Teams

  • /krɒsˈfʌŋkʃənl tiːmz/
  • Teams composed of individuals from different functional areas or departments within an organization, collaborating to achieve a common goal.
  • Nhóm chức năng chéo
  • Cross-functional teams promote innovation and problem-solving in supply chain management.

20. Lean Manufacturing

  • /liːn ˌmænjuˈfæktʃərɪŋ/
  • An approach to manufacturing that focuses on minimizing waste and maximizing efficiency by streamlining processes and reducing inventory levels.
  • Sản xuất gọn nhẹ
  • Lean manufacturing principles can be applied to improve supply chain performance.

21. Bullwhip Mitigation Strategies

  • /ˈbʊlˌwɪp ˌmaɪtɪˈɡeɪʃən ˈstrætɪdʒiz/
  • Techniques or actions taken to reduce the amplitude of demand fluctuations along the supply chain.
  • Chiến lược giảm hiệu ứng roi búa
  • Implementing demand smoothing and collaborative planning are common bullwhip mitigation strategies.

22. Vendor Scorecard

  • /ˈvɛndɔː ˈskɔrkɑːrd/
  • A performance measurement tool used to evaluate and monitor the performance of suppliers based on predefined criteria and metrics.
  • Bảng điểm nhà cung cấp
  • The vendor scorecard helps identify areas for improvement and strengthens supplier relationships.

23. Supply Chain Resilience

  • /səˈplaɪ tʃeɪn rɪˈzɪlɪəns/
  • The ability of a supply chain to adapt and recover quickly from disruptions, such as natural disasters, geopolitical events, or supply chain failures.
  • Sự linh hoạt của chuỗi cung ứng
  • Building supply chain resilience involves risk assessment, contingency planning, and collaboration with partners.

24. Demand-Supply Matching

  • /dɪˈmænd səˈplaɪ ˈmætʃɪŋ/
  • The process of aligning supply with demand to ensure that production and inventory levels meet customer requirements without excess or shortage.
  • Sự phù hợp giữa cung cầu
  • Demand-supply matching optimizes resource utilization and improves customer satisfaction.

25. Inbound Logistics

  • /ˈɪnbaʊnd ləˈdʒɪstɪks/
  • The management of the flow of materials, parts, and components from suppliers to manufacturing or assembly plants.
  • Logistics nhập khẩu
  • Effective inbound logistics contribute to cost reduction and production efficiency.

26. Batch Processing

  • /bætʃ ˈprɑːˌsɛsɪŋ/
  • A method of processing data, tasks, or jobs in which multiple items are grouped together and processed simultaneously as a single unit, typically to improve efficiency and optimize resource utilization.
  • Xử lý theo lô
  • The company uses batch processing to automate repetitive tasks such as payroll processing and inventory management.

7. Innovation and Technology

1. Innovation

  • /ˌɪnəˈveɪʃən/
  • The process of introducing new ideas, methods, products, or services that create value or solve problems, leading to improvements in efficiency, effectiveness, or competitiveness.
  • Sự đổi mới
  • Apple's introduction of the iPhone revolutionized the smartphone industry with its innovative design and features.

2. Technology

  • /tɛkˈnɒlədʒi/
  • The application of scientific knowledge, tools, techniques, or processes to create solutions, automate tasks, or improve performance in various fields such as industry, commerce, or communication.
  • Công nghệ
  • Advances in technology have transformed how businesses operate, communicate, and deliver value to customers.

3. Disruption

  • /dɪsˈrʌpʃən/
  • The significant and rapid change or transformation caused by innovations, technologies, or new business models that challenge traditional approaches, industries, or markets.
  • Sự đảo lộn
  • Netflix's disruption of the traditional video rental industry with its streaming service rendered brick-and-mortar rental stores obsolete.

4. Digitalization

  • /ˌdɪdʒɪtəˈlaɪˈzeɪʃən/
  • The process of converting analog information, processes, or systems into digital formats or implementing digital technologies to improve efficiency, accessibility, or functionality.
  • Sự số hóa
  • The digitalization of medical records has streamlined patient information management and improved healthcare delivery.

5. Artificial Intelligence (AI)

  • /ˌɑːtɪˈfɪʃəl ɪnˈtɛlɪdʒəns/
  • The simulation of human intelligence by machines or computer systems, enabling them to perform tasks, make decisions, or solve problems that typically require human cognition.
  • Trí tuệ nhân tạo (AI)
  • AI-powered chatbots are increasingly used in customer service to provide instant responses and assistance to inquiries.

6. Automation

  • /ɔːtəˈmeɪʃən/
  • The use of technology, machinery, or software to perform tasks, processes, or operations with minimal human intervention, increasing efficiency, accuracy, and productivity.
  • Tự động hóa
  • Robotic process automation (RPA) is automating repetitive tasks in industries such as manufacturing, finance, and customer service.

7. Blockchain

  • /ˈblɒktʃeɪn/
  • A decentralized digital ledger or database that records transactions across multiple computers in a secure, transparent, and immutable manner, eliminating the need for intermediaries.
  • Chuỗi khối
  • Blockchain technology is used in cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin to facilitate secure and transparent transactions without the need for traditional banks.

8. Internet of Things (IoT)

  • /ˈɪntərnɛt ʌv θɪŋz/
  • The network of interconnected devices, sensors, or objects embedded with software, sensors, or connectivity capabilities that enable them to collect, exchange, and analyze data.
  • Internet vạn vật (IoT)
  • IoT devices such as smart thermostats and wearable fitness trackers collect data to optimize energy usage and monitor health metrics.

9. Augmented Reality (AR)

  • /ˈɔːɡmɛntɪd riˈælɪti/
  • A technology that superimposes computer-generated images, information, or experiences onto the real world, enhancing perception, interaction, or visualization.
  • Thực tế tăng cường (AR)
  • AR applications overlay digital information onto physical environments, such as navigation aids in smartphone mapping apps.

10. Virtual Reality (VR)

  • /ˈvɜːrtʃʊəl riˈælɪti/
  • A technology that creates immersive, simulated environments or experiences, typically through headsets or goggles, allowing users to interact with and explore virtual worlds.
  • Thực tế ảo (VR)
  • VR technology is used in gaming, training simulations, and virtual tours to provide realistic and immersive experiences.

11. Cloud Computing

  • /klaʊd kəmˈpjuːtɪŋ/
  • The delivery of computing services, such as storage, processing, or software, over the internet on a pay-as-you-go basis, enabling scalable, on-demand access to resources.
  • Điện toán đám mây
  • Cloud computing allows businesses to access and deploy applications and data without investing in on-premises infrastructure.

12. Big Data

  • /bɪɡ ˈdeɪtə/
  • Large volumes of structured or unstructured data that are too complex or massive to be processed or analyzed using traditional data processing applications or techniques.
  • Dữ liệu lớn
  • Big data analytics tools help businesses extract insights, patterns, and trends from vast datasets to inform decision-making and strategy.

13. Cybersecurity

  • /ˈsaɪbərˌsɪkjʊərɪti/
  • The practice of protecting computer systems, networks, data, and information from unauthorized access, cyberattacks, or breaches, ensuring confidentiality, integrity, and availability.
  • An ninh mạng
  • Implementing robust cybersecurity measures is critical for safeguarding sensitive information and maintaining trust with customers and stakeholders.

14. User Experience (UX)

  • /ˈjuːzər ɪksˈpɪəriəns/
  • The overall experience or interaction that users have with a product, system, or service, encompassing usability, accessibility, satisfaction, and emotional responses.
  • Trải nghiệm người dùng (UX)
  • Designing a seamless and intuitive user experience is essential for ensuring customer satisfaction and loyalty.

15. Crowdfunding

  • /ˈkrəʊdfʌndɪŋ/
  • The practice of raising funds or capital for a project, venture, or initiative by soliciting contributions or investments from a large number of individuals or organizations, typically via online platforms.
  • Quyên góp vốn cộng đồng
  • Crowdfunding platforms like Kickstarter and Indiegogo enable entrepreneurs to raise funds and validate ideas without traditional financing sources.

16. Open Innovation

  • /ˈəʊpən ˌɪnəˈveɪʃən/
  • A collaborative approach to innovation that involves sharing ideas, resources, or knowledge with external partners, stakeholders, or communities to accelerate the development or adoption of new solutions.
  • Đổi mới mở
  • Open innovation fosters creativity, collaboration, and agility by tapping into external expertise and perspectives.

17. Biotechnology

  • /ˌbaɪoʊˌtɛknˈɒlədʒi/
  • The application of biological principles, techniques, and processes to develop products, technologies, or solutions that address societal challenges or improve human health, agriculture, or the environment.
  • Công nghệ sinh học
  • Biotechnology has led to advancements such as genetically modified crops, personalized medicine, and biofuels.

18. Nanotechnology

  • /ˌnænəʊˌtɛknˈɒlədʒi/
  • The manipulation, study, and application of materials, structures, or devices at the nanoscale level (typically 1 to 100 nanometers) to create novel materials, products, or processes with unique properties or functionalities.
  • Công nghệ nano
  • Nanotechnology has potential applications in electronics, medicine, energy, and environmental remediation.

19. Machine Learning

  • /məˈʃiːn ˈlɜːrnɪŋ/
  • A subset of artificial intelligence that enables computers or machines to learn from data, identify patterns, and make predictions or decisions without being explicitly programmed, using algorithms and statistical models.
  • Học máy
  • Machine learning algorithms power recommendation systems, predictive analytics, and autonomous vehicles.

20. 3D Printing

  • /θriː ˈdiː ˈprɪntɪŋ/
  • A manufacturing process that creates three-dimensional objects or prototypes layer by layer from digital models or designs using additive techniques, such as extrusion or laser sintering.
  • In 3D
  • In 3D printing, objects are created by depositing successive layers of material until the desired shape is formed.

21. Renewable Energy

  • /rɪˈnjuːəbl ˈɛnədʒi/
  • Energy derived from natural sources that are replenished or regenerated at a rate equal to or faster than they are consumed, such as solar, wind, hydro, geothermal, or biomass energy.
  • Năng lượng tái tạo
  • Investing in renewable energy technologies is crucial for reducing dependence on fossil fuels and mitigating climate change.

22. Quantum Computing

  • /ˈkwɒntəm kəmˈpjuːtɪŋ/
  • A computing paradigm that leverages principles of quantum mechanics to perform complex calculations, process data, or solve problems exponentially faster than classical computers, using qubits instead of binary bits.
  • Tính toán lượng tử
  • Quantum computing has the potential to revolutionize fields such as cryptography, materials science, and drug discovery.

23. Wearable Technology

  • /ˈwɛərəbəl tɛkˈnɒlədʒi/
  • Electronic devices or sensors worn or integrated into clothing, accessories, or the body, capable of collecting, monitoring, or transmitting data about the wearer's health, activity, or environment.
  • Công nghệ đeo được
  • Wearable technology includes smartwatches, fitness trackers, and augmented reality glasses.

24. Data Mining

  • /ˈdeɪtə ˈmaɪnɪŋ/
  • The process of discovering patterns, trends, or insights from large datasets using techniques such as statistical analysis, machine learning, or artificial intelligence to extract valuable information for decision-making.
  • Khai thác dữ liệu
  • Data mining techniques are used in various domains, including marketing, finance, healthcare, and cybersecurity.

25. Robotics

  • /rəʊˈbɒtɪks/
  • The interdisciplinary field that involves the design, construction, programming, and operation of robots or automated systems to perform tasks, functions, or operations autonomously or semi-autonomously.
  • Người máy
  • Robotics encompasses industrial robots used in manufacturing, autonomous drones, and humanoid robots for research and entertainment.

26. Genetic Engineering

  • /dʒəˈnɛtɪk ˌɛndʒɪˈnɪərɪŋ/
  • The manipulation or modification of the genetic material (DNA or RNA) of organisms to introduce desired traits, characteristics, or functionalities for purposes such as medicine, agriculture, or biotechnology.
  • Kỹ thuật di truyền học
  • Genetic engineering techniques enable the development of genetically modified crops, gene therapies, and genetically engineered organisms.

8. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)

1. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)

  • /ˈkɔːrpərət ˈsoʊʃəl rɪˌspɑːnsəˈbɪləti/
  • The ethical framework and voluntary initiatives adopted by corporations to contribute to societal well-being and sustainable development, beyond legal obligations, through responsible business practices and stakeholder engagement.
  • Trách nhiệm xã hội doanh nghiệp (CSR)
  • Many companies engage in CSR activities such as environmental conservation, philanthropy, and employee volunteer programs.

2. Sustainability

  • /səˌsteɪnəˈbɪləti/
  • The principle of meeting present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs, through responsible stewardship of natural resources, environmental protection, and social equity.
  • Sự bền vững
  • Sustainable practices aim to minimize environmental impact, conserve resources, and promote social equity.

3. Ethical Business Practices

  • /ˈɛθɪkəl ˈbɪznɪs ˈpræktɪsɪz/
  • Standards of conduct and behavior that uphold principles of honesty, integrity, fairness, and respect for human rights, in all aspects of business operations, interactions, and decision-making.
  • Thực hành kinh doanh đạo đức
  • Ethical business practices involve transparency, accountability, and compliance with laws and regulations.

4. Stakeholder Engagement

  • /ˈsteɪkˌhoʊldər ɪnˈɡeɪdʒmənt/
  • The process of involving and collaborating with individuals, groups, or entities affected by or with an interest in a company's activities, decisions, or performance, to understand their concerns, needs, and perspectives.
  • Giao tiếp với bên liên quan
  • Effective stakeholder engagement fosters trust, builds relationships, and enables companies to address stakeholder expectations and concerns.

5. Corporate Governance

  • /ˈkɔːrpərət ˈɡʌvərnəns/
  • The system of rules, policies, practices, and processes by which corporations are directed, controlled, and managed to achieve their objectives, ensure accountability, and protect stakeholders' interests.
  • Quản trị doanh nghiệp
  • Strong corporate governance frameworks promote transparency, integrity, and ethical conduct within organizations.

6. Environmental Stewardship

  • /ɪnˌvaɪrənˈmɛntl ˈstjuːərdʃɪp/
  • The responsible management and conservation of natural resources, ecosystems, and biodiversity to minimize environmental impact, reduce pollution, and promote sustainable development.
  • Người quản lý môi trường
  • Environmental stewardship initiatives include waste reduction, energy efficiency, and sustainable sourcing practices.

7. Community Engagement

  • /kəˈmjuːnɪti ɪnˈɡeɪdʒmənt/
  • The involvement, collaboration, and partnership with local communities where a company operates, to address community needs, support development projects, and foster positive social impact.
  • Giao tiếp cộng đồng
  • Community engagement programs may include education, health, infrastructure, or economic development initiatives.

8. Social Impact

  • /ˈsoʊʃəl ˈɪmpækt/
  • The measurable effects, outcomes, or consequences of a company's actions, initiatives, or operations on society, communities, and stakeholders, including both positive and negative impacts.
  • Tác động xã hội
  • Social impact assessments evaluate the social, economic, and environmental effects of business activities on local communities and society at large.

9. Philanthropy

  • /fɪˈlænθrəpi/
  • The charitable donations, contributions, or support provided by corporations or individuals to address social, environmental, or humanitarian issues, improve quality of life, and promote public welfare.
  • Từ thiện
  • Corporate philanthropy includes donations to nonprofit organizations, sponsorship of charitable events, and employee volunteer programs.

10. Supply Chain Sustainability

  • /səˈplaɪ ʃeɪn səˌsteɪnəˈbɪləti/
  • The integration of environmental, social, and ethical considerations into the design, sourcing, production, distribution, and disposal of products or services across the supply chain to minimize negative impacts and promote responsible practices.
  • Bền vững chuỗi cung ứng
  • Supply chain sustainability initiatives aim to address issues such as labor rights, fair trade, and environmental responsibility throughout the supply chain.

11. Corporate Citizenship

  • /ˈkɔːrpərət ˈsɪtɪzənʃɪp/
  • The concept of businesses or corporations as responsible members of society, with obligations and duties to contribute positively to the communities, environments, and economies in which they operate.
  • Công dân doanh nghiệp
  • Corporate citizenship involves active participation in community development, environmental conservation, and social welfare activities.

12. Triple Bottom Line

  • /ˈtrɪpəl ˈbɒtəm laɪn/
  • A framework for evaluating business performance based on three interconnected dimensions: social, environmental, and financial, aiming to measure organizational success beyond financial profit.
  • Ba mục tiêu cơ bản
  • The triple bottom line approach considers the social and environmental impacts of business activities in addition to financial outcomes.

13. Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

  • /səˈsteɪnəbl dɪˈvɛləpmənt ɡoʊlz/
  • A set of 17 global goals adopted by the United Nations to address pressing social, economic, and environmental challenges and achieve sustainable development by 2030, providing a framework for action and collaboration by governments, businesses, and civil society.
  • Mục tiêu phát triển bền vững
  • Many companies align their CSR strategies and initiatives with the Sustainable Development Goals to contribute to global efforts to end poverty, protect the planet, and ensure prosperity for all.

14. Corporate Transparency

  • /ˈkɔːrpərət trænˈspɛrənsi/
  • The practice of openly disclosing relevant information, data, policies, and practices about a company's operations, performance, and impacts to stakeholders, fostering trust, accountability, and informed decision-making.
  • Sự minh bạch doanh nghiệp
  • Corporate transparency promotes trust and credibility by providing stakeholders with clear and accurate information about corporate activities and decisions.

15. Human Rights

  • /ˈhjuːmən raɪts/
  • Fundamental rights and freedoms inherent to all human beings, such as the right to life, liberty, equality, and dignity, protected by national and international laws, conventions, and declarations.
  • Nhân quyền
  • Respecting human rights is a core component of corporate social responsibility, encompassing issues such as labor rights, non-discrimination, and child labor.

16. Corporate Ethics

  • /ˈkɔːrpərət ˈɛθɪks/
  • The principles, values, standards, and codes of conduct that guide ethical behavior and decision-making within a company, emphasizing integrity, honesty, fairness, and responsibility.
  • Đạo đức doanh nghiệp
  • Corporate ethics policies establish guidelines for employees to uphold ethical standards in their interactions with colleagues, customers, suppliers, and the community.

17. Diversity and Inclusion

  • /daɪˈvɜːrsɪti ænd ɪnˈkluːʒən/
  • The recognition, acceptance, and celebration of differences, diversity, and individual uniqueness among people based on factors such as race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, age, ability, and background, coupled with efforts to create environments where everyone feels valued, respected, and included.
  • Đa dạng và bao dung
  • Embracing diversity and inclusion fosters innovation, creativity, and productivity by leveraging diverse perspectives, experiences, and talents.

18. Corporate Accountability

  • /ˈkɔːrpərət əˌkaʊntəˈbɪləti/
  • The responsibility of corporations to acknowledge, accept, and answer for the consequences of their actions, decisions, and impacts on stakeholders, communities, and the environment, holding themselves to standards of transparency, integrity, and performance.
  • Trách nhiệm doanh nghiệp
  • Corporate accountability mechanisms such as reporting frameworks, audits, and stakeholder engagement hold companies accountable for their social, environmental, and ethical performance.

19. Environmental Conservation

  • /ɪnˌvaɪrənˈmɛntl ˌkɒnsəˈveɪʃən/
  • The protection, preservation, and sustainable management of natural ecosystems, habitats, biodiversity, and resources to maintain ecological balance, prevent habitat loss, and mitigate environmental degradation.
  • Bảo tồn môi trường
  • Example: Environmental conservation efforts include habitat restoration, wildlife protection, and initiatives to reduce carbon emissions and pollution.

20. Greenwashing

  • /ˈɡriːnˌwɒʃɪŋ/
  • The deceptive or misleading practice of falsely portraying a company, product, or service as environmentally friendly, sustainable, or socially responsible through misleading marketing, branding, or communications, without substantiated evidence or meaningful action.
  • Quảng cáo xanh
  • Greenwashing undermines the credibility of genuine sustainability efforts and misleads consumers by exploiting environmental concerns for marketing purposes.

21. Corporate Citizenship Reporting

  • /ˈkɔːrpərət ˈsɪtɪzənʃɪp rɪˈpɔːtɪŋ/
  • The practice of disclosing information, data, and performance indicators related to a company's corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives, practices, impacts, and outcomes in formal reports or documents, to communicate with stakeholders and demonstrate commitment to responsible business practices.
  • Báo cáo công dân doanh nghiệp
  • Corporate citizenship reporting provides transparency and accountability by sharing information on CSR goals, progress, challenges, and achievements with stakeholders.

22. Social Entrepreneurship

  • /ˈsoʊʃəl ˌɑːntrəprəˈnɜːrʃɪp/
  • The practice of using entrepreneurial principles, innovation, and business strategies to address social, environmental, or humanitarian challenges, create positive social impact, and promote sustainable development, often through the creation of mission-driven businesses or organizations.
  • Doanh nghiệp xã hội
  • Example: Social entrepreneurship ventures combine profit-making with social and environmental objectives, such as providing affordable healthcare, education, or clean energy solutions to underserved communities.

23. Corporate Volunteering

  • /ˈkɔːrpərət ˌvɒlənˈtɪərɪŋ/
  • The practice of employees engaging in volunteer activities, community service projects, or charitable initiatives organized or supported by their employer, as part of corporate social responsibility (CSR) programs or employee engagement efforts.
  • Tình nguyện doanh nghiệp
  • Corporate volunteering programs offer employees opportunities to give back to their communities, develop teamwork skills, and strengthen bonds with colleagues.

24. Fair Trade

  • /fɛr treɪd/
  • An ethical trading partnership or certification system that promotes equitable and sustainable practices in global supply chains, ensuring fair wages, safe working conditions, and social and environmental responsibility for producers, workers, and farmers in developing countries.
  • Thương mại công bằng
  • Fair trade initiatives aim to empower marginalized producers and promote social justice by guaranteeing fair prices, premiums, and support for community development projects.

25. Circular Economy

  • /ˈsɜːrkjʊlər ɪˈkɒnəmi/
  • An economic system or model designed to minimize waste, maximize resource efficiency, and promote sustainability by closing the loop of resource use, production, consumption, and disposal through strategies such as reuse, recycling, and remanufacturing.
  • Nền kinh tế tuần hoàn
  • The circular economy concept aims to decouple economic growth from resource consumption and environmental degradation by promoting closed-loop systems and sustainable consumption patterns.

26. Child Labor Elimination

  • /tʃaɪld ˈleɪbər ɪˌlɪmɪˈneɪʃən/
  • Efforts to eradicate the exploitative employment of children in work that deprives them of their childhood, education, and opportunities for healthy development, ensuring their rights, well-being, and protection from physical, mental, and emotional harm.
  • Loại bỏ lao động trẻ em
  • Child labor elimination initiatives aim to enforce labor laws, improve access to education, and address poverty and social inequalities to protect children's rights and welfare.

9. Risk Management

1. Risk Management

  • /rɪsk ˈmænɪdʒmənt/
  • The process of identifying, assessing, and mitigating risks to minimize their impact on objectives.
  • Quản lý rủi ro
  • Effective risk management is crucial for ensuring business continuity and success.

2. Hazard

  • /ˈhæzərd/
  • A potential source of danger or harm that may result in loss or injury.
  • Mối nguy hiểm
  • Chemical spills pose a hazard to the environment and human health.

3. Threat

  • /θrɛt/
  • A potential event or circumstance that could adversely affect an organization's assets, operations, or reputation.
  • Mối đe dọa
  • Cyberattacks are a significant threat to data security for businesses.

4. Vulnerability

  • /ˌvʌlnərəˈbɪlɪti/
  • The susceptibility of an organization or system to be harmed or exploited by a risk event.
  • Sự tổn thương
  • Poor cybersecurity measures increase the vulnerability of a company to cyber threats.

5. Risk Assessment

  • /rɪsk əˈsɛsmənt/
  • The process of evaluating the likelihood and impact of identified risks to determine their significance.
  • Đánh giá rủi ro
  • Conducting a risk assessment helps prioritize risk management efforts.

6. Mitigation

  • /ˌmɪtɪˈɡeɪʃən/
  • The action of reducing the severity or impact of a risk through preventive measures or controls.
  • Giảm nhẹ
  • Installing fire sprinklers is a mitigation measure to reduce the risk of fire damage.

7. Contingency Plan

  • /kənˈtɪndʒənsi plæn/
  • A predefined set of actions or procedures designed to respond to and recover from unexpected events or emergencies.
  • Kế hoạch dự phòng
  • Airlines have contingency plans in place to deal with flight delays or cancellations.

8. Risk Tolerance

  • /rɪsk ˈtɒlərəns/
  • The level of risk that an organization or individual is willing to accept or tolerate.
  • Sự chịu đựng rủi ro
  • Conservative investors have a low risk tolerance and prefer safer investment options.

9. Risk Appetite

  • /rɪsk ˈæpɪtaɪt/
  • The amount and type of risk that an organization or individual is willing to pursue or accept in pursuit of its objectives.
  • Sự ham muốn rủi ro
  • High-risk appetite may lead to greater potential returns but also higher potential losses.

10. Risk Register

  • /rɪsk ˈrɛdʒɪstər/
  • A document or database used to record and track identified risks, including their characteristics, likelihood, and impact.
  • Sổ đăng ký rủi ro
  • The risk register is regularly updated to ensure all risks are effectively managed.

11. Risk Response

  • /rɪsk rɪˈspɒns/
  • The actions taken by an organization or individual to address and manage identified risks, including avoidance, mitigation, transfer, or acceptance.
  • Phản ứng rủi ro
  • Implementing risk response strategies helps reduce the impact of potential risks.

12. Risk Monitoring

  • /rɪsk ˈmɒnɪtərɪŋ/
  • The ongoing process of tracking, reviewing, and assessing risks to evaluate their effectiveness and adapt risk management strategies as necessary.
  • Giám sát rủi ro
  • Regular risk monitoring ensures that new risks are promptly identified and addressed.

13. Communication

  • /rɪsk kəˌmjuːnɪˈkeɪʃən/
  • The exchange of information about risks, including their nature, likelihood, and potential impact, among stakeholders.
  • Giao tiếp rủi ro
  • Effective risk communication fosters understanding and collaboration in risk management efforts.

14. Risk Analysis

  • /rɪsk əˈnæləsɪs/
  • The process of examining identified risks to understand their characteristics, potential consequences, and likelihood of occurrence.
  • Phân tích rủi ro
  • Risk analysis helps organizations make informed decisions about risk management priorities.

15. Business Continuity Planning

  • /ˈbɪznɪs kənˌtɪnjuˈɪti ˈplænɪŋ/
  • The process of developing strategies and procedures to ensure critical business functions can continue or be rapidly restored in the event of a disruption or disaster.
  • Kế hoạch duy trì hoạt động kinh doanh
  • Business continuity planning minimizes downtime and financial losses during emergencies.

16. Risk Avoidance

  • /rɪsk əˈvɔɪdəns/
  • A risk response strategy that involves eliminating activities, exposures, or processes that could result in unwanted outcomes.
  • Tránh rủi ro
  • The company decided to avoid the risk of currency fluctuations by using hedging strategies.

17. Risk Transfer

  • /rɪsk ˈtrænsfɜːr/
  • The process of shifting the financial consequences of a risk to another party, such as an insurance provider or a contractual agreement.
  • Chuyển giao rủi ro
  • Purchasing insurance is a common method of risk transfer for businesses.

18. Risk Sharing

  • /rɪsk ˈʃɛrɪŋ/
  • A risk management approach that involves distributing risks among multiple parties, such as partners, suppliers, or customers.
  • Chia sẻ rủi ro
  • Risk sharing can help mitigate the impact of individual risks on an organization.

19. Risk Retention

  • /rɪsk rɪˈtɛnʃən/
  • The decision to accept and bear the financial consequences of a risk without transferring it to another party.
  • Duy trì rủi ro
  • Small businesses often retain certain risks due to limited resources for risk management.

20. Risk Appetite Statement

  • /rɪsk ˈæpɪtaɪt ˈsteɪtmənt/
  • A formal document that articulates an organization's willingness to accept and manage risks in pursuit of its objectives.
  • Tuyên bố về khẩu vị rủi ro
  • The risk appetite statement guides decision-making and risk management practices.

21. Risk Heat Map

  • /rɪsk hit mæp/
  • A visual representation of risks using colors to indicate their likelihood and impact, helping prioritize risk management efforts.
  • Bản đồnhiệt rủi ro
  • The risk heat map highlights high-risk areas that require immediate attention.

22. Risk Assessment Workshop

  • /rɪsk əˈsɛsmənt ˈwɜːkʃɒp/
  • A collaborative session involving stakeholders to identify, assess, and prioritize risks, often using structured methodologies.
  • Hội thảo đánh giá rủi ro
  • The risk assessment workshop fosters cross-functional communication and consensus on risk management strategies.

23. Key Risk Indicator (KRI)

  • /kiː rɪsk ˈɪndɪkeɪtər/
  • Quantitative or qualitative metrics used to monitor and measure the likelihood or impact of key risks on organizational objectives.
  • Chỉ số rủi ro chính
  • Tracking KRIs helps organizations proactively manage risks and prevent potential issues.

24. Risk Register Review

  • /rɪsk ˈrɛdʒɪstər rɪˈvjuː/
  • A periodic evaluation of the risk register to ensure that all identified risks are still relevant, and their status and management strategies are up-to-date.
  • Đánh giá lại sổ đăng ký rủi ro
  • Regular risk register reviews help maintain the effectiveness of risk management practices.

25. Risk Mitigation Plan

  • /rɪsk ˌmɪtɪˈɡeɪʃən plæn/
  • A detailed strategy outlining specific actions, responsibilities, and timelines to reduce the likelihood or impact of identified risks.
  • Kế hoạch giảm nhẹ rủi ro
  • Implementing a risk mitigation plan minimizes the potential consequences of adverse events.

26. Risk Reporting

  • /rɪsk rɪˈpɔːtɪŋ/
  • The process of communicating information about risks, their status, and management activities to stakeholders through formal reports or presentations.
  • Báo cáo rủi ro
  • Timely and accurate risk reporting enhances transparency and accountability in risk management.

27. Risk Governance

  • /rɪsk ˈɡʌvənəns/
  • The framework, policies, and processes established by an organization's leadership to oversee and manage risks effectively.
  • Quản trị rủi ro
  • Strong risk governance structures ensure that risks are appropriately identified, assessed, and addressed.

28. Risk Culture

  • /rɪsk ˈkʌltʃər/
  • The values, beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors within an organization that influence how risks are perceived, managed, and addressed.
  • Văn hóa rủi ro
  • Fostering a positive risk culture encourages employees to proactively identify and manage risks in their areas of responsibility.

10. E-commerce and Online Business

1. E-commerce

  • /iːˈkɒmɜːs/
  • The buying and selling of goods and services over the internet.
  • Thương mại điện tử
  • Amazon is a leading platform for e-commerce, offering a wide range of products online.

2. Online Business

  • /ˈɒnˌlaɪn ˈbɪznɪs/
  • A business that conducts its operations primarily or exclusively on the internet.
  • Doanh nghiệp trực tuyến
  • Many startups are opting for online business models due to lower overhead costs.

3. Website

  • /ˈwɛbsaɪt/
  • A collection of web pages accessible through the internet, typically containing information about a particular topic or offering products/services.
  • Trang web
  • The company launched a new website to showcase its products and services.

4. Online Store

  • /ˈɒnˌlaɪn stɔː/
  • A website or platform where goods or services are offered for sale to customers over the internet.
  • Cửa hàng trực tuyến
  • Setting up an online store allows businesses to reach a global audience.

5. Digital Marketing

  • /ˈdɪdʒɪtl ˈmɑːrkɪtɪŋ/
  • The use of digital channels and technologies to promote products or services to potential customers.
  • Tiếp thị kỹ thuật số
  • Social media advertising is an effective digital marketing strategy to reach target audiences.

6. Online Payment

  • /ˈɒnˌlaɪn ˈpeɪmənt/
  • The transfer of money for goods or services conducted electronically over the internet.
  • Thanh toán trực tuyến
  • PayPal and credit card payments are popular options for online payments.

7. E-commerce Platform

  • /iːˈkɒmɜːs ˈplætfɔːm/
  • A software or service that facilitates the buying and selling of goods and services online.
  • Nền tảng thương mại điện tử
  • Shopify and WooCommerce are popular e-commerce platforms for building online stores.

8. Customer Relationship Management (CRM) System

  • /ˈkʌstəmər rɪˈleɪʃənʃɪp ˈmænɪdʒmənt ˈsɪstəm/
  • A system used to manage interactions with current and potential customers, typically storing customer information and tracking sales leads.
  • Hệ thống quản lý mối quan hệ khách hàng
  • Implementing a CRM system helps businesses better understand and serve their customers.

9. Online Reviews

  • /ˈɒnˌlaɪn rɪˈvjuːz/
  • Evaluations or feedback provided by customers about products or services, posted on the internet.
  • Nhận xét trực tuyến
  • Positive online reviews can build trust and credibility for an online business.

10. Shopping Cart

  • /ˈʃɒpɪŋ kɑːt/
  • A virtual cart or basket on an e-commerce website where customers can add items they wish to purchase before proceeding to checkout.
  • Giỏ hàng
  • Customers can easily add or remove items from their shopping cart before making a purchase.

11. Dropshipping

  • /ˈdrɒpˌʃɪpɪŋ/
  • A retail fulfillment method where a store doesn't keep the products it sells in stock; instead, when it sells a product, it purchases the item from a third party and has it shipped directly to the customer.
  • Giao hàng trực tiếp
  • Dropshipping eliminates the need for inventory storage and management.

12. Affiliate Marketing

  • /əˈfɪliət ˈmɑːrkɪtɪŋ/
  • A marketing arrangement where an online retailer pays a commission to other websites (affiliates) for referring customers through the affiliate's marketing efforts.
  • Tiếp thị liên kết
  • Bloggers and influencers often participate in affiliate marketing programs to monetize their online presence.

13. Search Engine Optimization (SEO)

  • /sɜːtʃ ˈɛndʒɪn ˌɒptɪmɪˈzeɪʃən/
  • The process of optimizing a website to rank higher in search engine results pages (SERPs) and increase organic (non-paid) traffic.
  • Tối ưu hóa công cụ tìm kiếm
  • Implementing SEO best practices improves a website's visibility and attracts more potential customers.

14. Mobile Commerce (M-commerce)

  • /ˈməʊbaɪl ˈkɒmɜːs/
  • The buying and selling of goods and services through mobile devices, such as smartphones and tablets.
  • Thương mại di động
  • M-commerce has become increasingly popular due to the widespread use of smartphones.

15. SSL Certificate

  • /ɛs ɛs ɛl ˈsɜːtɪfɪkət/
  • A digital certificate that authenticates the identity of a website and encrypts data transmitted between the website and its visitors, ensuring secure online transactions.
  • Chứng chỉ SSL
  • Websites with SSL certificates display a padlock icon in the browser's address bar, indicating a secure connection.

16. Conversion Rate

  • /kənˈvɜːʃən reɪt/
  • The percentage of website visitors who complete a desired action, such as making a purchase or filling out a form, out of the total number of visitors.
  • Tỷ lệ chuyển đổi
  • Improving the website's user experience can lead to higher conversion rates.

17. Chatbot

  • /ˈtʃætbɒt/
  • A computer program designed to simulate conversation with human users, typically used to provide customer support or assistance on websites.
  • Trò chuyện tự động
  • Many online businesses use chatbots to engage with customers and answer frequently asked questions.

18. E-commerce Logistics

  • /iːˈkɒmɜːs lɒˈdʒɪstɪks/
  • The process of planning, implementing, and controlling the flow of goods from the point of origin to the point of consumption in an e-commerce supply chain.
  • Logistics thương mại điện tử
  • Efficient e-commerce logistics involve order processing, warehousing, and last-mile delivery to ensure timely and accurate delivery of orders to customers.

19. Fulfillment Center

  • /fʊlˈfɪlmənt ˈsɛntər/
  • A warehouse or facility used by e-commerce businesses to store inventory, pick, pack, and ship orders to customers.
  • Trung tâm xử lý đơn hàng
  • Amazon operates numerous fulfillment centers worldwide to facilitate fast order processing and delivery.

20. Digital Product

  • /ˈdɪdʒɪtl ˈprɒdʌkt/
  • A product that is delivered or accessed electronically, such as software, e-books, music, or online courses.
  • Sản phẩm kỹ thuật số
  • Selling digital products eliminates the need for physical inventory and shipping costs.

21. Subscription Service

  • /səbˈskrɪpʃən ˈsɜːvɪs/
  • A business model where customers pay a recurring fee at regular intervals to access a product or service.
  • Dịch vụ đăng ký
  • Subscription services offer convenience and predictability for both businesses and customers.

22. Customer Retention

  • /ˈkʌstəmər rɪˈtɛnʃən/
  • The strategies and efforts aimed at retaining existing customers and fostering long-term relationships with them.
  • Giữ chân khách hàng
  • Providing excellent customer service and personalized experiences can enhance customer retention.

23. Abandoned Cart

  • /əˈbændənd kɑːt/
  • A term used to describe the phenomenon where a customer adds items to their online shopping cart but does not complete the purchase.
  • Giỏ hàng bị bỏ quên
  • Sending reminder emails or offering incentives can help recover sales from abandoned carts.

24. Digital Wallet

  • /ˈdɪdʒɪtl ˈwɒlɪt/
  • A software-based system that securely stores payment information and allows users to make electronic transactions.
  • Ví điện tử
  • Popular digital wallets include PayPal, Apple Pay, and Google Pay.

25. Customer Lifetime Value (CLV)

  • /ˈkʌstəmər ˈlaɪftaɪm ˈvæljuː/
  • The predicted net profit attributed to the entire future relationship with a customer, often used to measure a customer's long-term value to a business.
  • Giá trị suốt đời của khách hàng
  • Calculating CLV helps businesses allocate resources effectively and prioritize customer acquisition and retention efforts.

26. Multi-channel Selling

  • /ˈmʌltiˈtʃænəl ˈsɛlɪŋ/
  • The practice of selling products or services through multiple channels, such as online marketplaces, social media, and physical stores.
  • Bán hàng đa kênh
  • Adopting a multi-channel selling approach expands a business's reach and enhances customer convenience.

27. Return Policy

  • /rɪˈtɜːn ˈpɒlɪsi/
  • A set of rules and procedures established by a business regarding the process and conditions under which customers can return purchased items for a refund, exchange, or store credit.
  • Chính sách đổi trả
  • Having a clear and flexible return policy can build trust and confidence among online shoppers.

28. Digital Signature

  • /ˈdɪdʒɪtl ˈsɪɡnətʃər/
  • A cryptographic technique used to validate the authenticity and integrity of digital messages or documents, often used in electronic contracts and transactions.
  • Chữ ký số
  • Digital signatures ensure the security and legality of electronic documents exchanged in e-commerce transactions.

29. Geotargeting

  • /ˈdʒiːəʊˈtɑːɡɪtɪŋ/
  • The practice of delivering targeted content or advertisements to users based on their geographic location, typically determined by IP address or GPS data.
  • Định vị địa lý
  • Geotargeting allows businesses to personalize marketing messages and offers for different regions or localities.

30. Data Encryption

  • /ˈdeɪtə ɪnˈkrɪpʃən/
  • The process of converting data into a code or cipher to prevent unauthorized access or interception during transmission.
  • Mã hóa dữ liệu
  • Employing strong data encryption techniques safeguards sensitive information, such as payment details, in e-commerce transactions.

11. Business Ethics

1. Ethics

  • /ˈɛθɪks/
  • Moral principles and values that govern individual and collective behavior in business, emphasizing integrity, honesty, fairness, and responsibility.
  • Đạo đức kinh doanh
  • Adhering to ethical principles ensures that businesses operate with integrity and respect for stakeholders.

2. Integrity

  • /ɪnˈtɛɡrəti/
  • The quality of being honest, principled, and morally upright in one's actions and decisions, maintaining consistency between words and deeds.
  • Chính trực
  • Demonstrating integrity is essential for building trust and credibility in business relationships.

3. Honesty

  • /ˈɒnɪsti/
  • Truthfulness and sincerity in communication and dealings, refraining from deception, fraud, or misleading practices.
  • Trung thực
  • Business leaders should uphold honesty in their interactions with customers, employees, and other stakeholders.

4. Fairness

  • /ˈfɛərnɪs/
  • The impartial and equitable treatment of all individuals and groups, ensuring that decisions and outcomes are just and reasonable.
  • Công bằng
  • Promoting fairness in business practices fosters trust and fosters a positive organizational culture.

5. Responsibility

  • /rɪˌspɒnsəˈbɪlɪti/
  • The obligation to act ethically and be accountable for one's actions, decisions, and their consequences, considering the impact on stakeholders and society.
  • Trách nhiệm
  • Corporate social responsibility reflects a company's commitment to fulfilling its responsibilities to society beyond profit-making.

6. Corporate Governance

  • /ˈkɔːrpərət ˈɡʌvərnəns/
  • The system of rules, practices, and processes by which a company is directed, controlled, and managed in the best interest of stakeholders, ensuring accountability and transparency.
  • Quản trị doanh nghiệp
  • Effective corporate governance promotes ethical conduct and protects shareholder interests.

7. Conflict of Interest

  • /ˈkɒnflɪkt əv ˈɪntrɪst/
  • A situation where personal, financial, or other interests of an individual or entity conflict with their professional or fiduciary duties, potentially compromising integrity or objectivity.
  • Xung đột lợi ích
  • Employees should disclose and avoid situations that create a conflict of interest with their employer or clients.

8. Bribery

  • /ˈbraɪbəri/
  • The offering, giving, receiving, or soliciting of something of value, such as money or gifts, to influence the actions or decisions of individuals in positions of authority or trust.
  • Hối lộ
  • Bribery is illegal and undermines fair competition and the integrity of business transactions.

9. Corruption

  • /kəˈrʌpʃən/
  • Dishonest or fraudulent conduct by individuals or organizations, abusing power or position for personal gain, and undermining public trust and the rule of law.
  • Tham nhũng
  • Governments and businesses must combat corruption to promote economic development and ensure fair and transparent governance.

10. Whistleblowing

  • /ˈwɪslbloʊɪŋ/
  • The disclosure or reporting of unethical, illegal, or fraudulent activities within an organization by employees or insiders, often in the public interest or to prevent harm.
  • Người tố cáo
  • Whistleblowing can help expose wrongdoing and promote accountability, but whistleblowers may face retaliation or legal consequences.

11. Transparency

  • /trænˈspærənsi/
  • The quality of being open, honest, and accountable in business operations, decision-making, and communication, disclosing relevant information to stakeholders.
  • Sự minh bạch
  • Transparency enhances trust, fosters ethical behavior, and mitigates risks associated with hidden agendas or information asymmetry.

12. Code of Ethics

  • /koʊd əv ˈiːθɪks/
  • A set of principles, values, and standards of conduct established by an organization to guide the behavior of its employees and stakeholders, promoting ethical decision-making and behavior.
  • Quy định đạo đức
  • Adherence to a code of ethics helps maintain ethical standards and promotes a positive organizational culture.

13. Insider Trading

  • /ˈɪnsaɪdə ˈtreɪdɪŋ/
  • The buying or selling of a company's stock by individuals with access to non-public, material information about the company, in violation of securities laws and regulations.
  • Giao dịch nội gián
  • Insider trading undermines market integrity and fairness by giving insiders an unfair advantage over other investors.

14. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)

  • /ˈkɔːrpərət ˈsəʊʃəl rɪˌspɒnsəˈbɪlɪti/
  • The ethical framework and practices adopted by businesses to contribute positively to society and the environment, beyond legal obligations and financial interests.
  • Trách nhiệm xã hội doanh nghiệp
  • Companies engage in CSR activities such as philanthropy, environmental sustainability, and ethical labor practices to build trust and reputation.

15. Sustainability

  • /səˌsteɪnəˈbɪlɪti/
  • Meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs, balancing economic, environmental, and social considerations.
  • Bền vững
  • Sustainable business practices aim to minimize environmental impact, promote social equity, and ensure long-term profitability.

16. Environmental Ethics

  • /ɪnˌvaɪrənˈmɛntl ˈɛθɪks/
  • Moral principles and values concerning the relationship between humans and the natural environment, emphasizing conservation, sustainability, and stewardship.
  • Đạo đức môi trường
  • Environmental ethics guide business decisions and actions to minimize ecological harm and promote responsible resource management.

17. Social Responsibility

  • /ˈsəʊʃəl rɪˌspɒnsəˈbɪlɪti/
  • The obligation of individuals and organizations to act in ways that benefit society, including addressing social issues, supporting communities, and promoting human rights.
  • Trách nhiệm xã hội
  • Socially responsible businesses contribute to community development, diversity and inclusion, and poverty alleviation.

18. Ethical Dilemma

  • /ˈɛθɪkəl dɪˈlɛmə/
  • A situation where a person or organization faces a choice between conflicting moral principles or values, with no clear or satisfactory solution that avoids compromising ethical standards.
  • Tình huống đạo đức
  • Ethical dilemmas require careful consideration of the consequences and principles involved to make an ethically sound decision.

19. Corporate Culture

  • /ˈkɔːrpərət ˈkʌltʃər/
  • The shared values, beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors that characterize an organization and influence its practices, decisions, and interactions.
  • Văn hóa doanh nghiệp
  • A strong corporate culture that promotes ethical behavior can help prevent misconduct and foster a positive work environment.

20. Conflict Resolution

  • /ˈkɒnflɪkt ˌrɛzəˈluːʃən/
  • The process of addressing and resolving disagreements, disputes, or conflicts between individuals or groups in a fair, constructive, and mutually acceptable manner.
  • Giải quyết mâu thuẫn
  • Effective conflict resolution promotes understanding, cooperation, and collaboration, reducing the risk of escalation and damage to relationships.

21. Ethical Leadership

  • /ˈɛθɪkəl ˈliːdərʃɪp/
  • Leadership characterized by integrity, honesty, transparency, and ethical decision-making, inspiring trust, respect, and followership among employees and stakeholders.
  • Lãnh đạo đạo đức
  • Ethical leaders set a positive example, establish clear ethical standards, and hold themselves and others accountable for upholding ethical principles.

22. Ethical Decision-making

  • /ˈɛθɪkəl dɪˈsɪʒənˌmeɪkɪŋ/
  • The process of evaluating ethical dilemmas, considering various options and consequences, and choosing actions or solutions that align with ethical principles and values.
  • Quyết định đạo đức
  • Ethical decision-making involves critical thinking, moral reasoning, and empathy to make choices that uphold integrity and respect for stakeholders.

12. Market Research and Analysis

1. Data Analysis

  • /ˈdeɪtə əˈnæləsɪs/
  • The process of examining, cleaning, transforming, and interpreting data to uncover insights, patterns, and trends that inform decision-making and strategy development.
  • Phân tích dữ liệu
  • Data analysis techniques include statistical analysis, data mining, and predictive modeling.

2. SWOT Analysis

  • /swɒt əˈnæləsɪs/
  • A strategic planning tool used to identify Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats related to a business or project, enabling informed decision-making and strategy formulation.
  • Phân tích SWOT
  • Conducting a SWOT analysis helps businesses assess internal capabilities and external factors that may impact their success.

3. Market Trends

  • /ˈmɑːrkɪt trɛndz/
  • Long-term or short-term movements or shifts in consumer behavior, preferences, technologies, or economic conditions that impact market demand, opportunities, and threats.
  • Xu hướng thị trường
  • Monitoring market trends helps businesses anticipate changes and adapt their strategies to meet evolving customer needs and preferences.

4. Customer Satisfaction

  • /ˈkʌstəmər ˌsætɪsˈfækʃən/
  • The extent to which customers' expectations are met or exceeded by the products, services, or experiences provided by a business, leading to loyalty, repeat purchases, and positive word-of-mouth.
  • Sự hài lòng của khách hàng
  • Measuring customer satisfaction helps businesses identify areas for improvement and build strong, lasting relationships with customers.

5. Primary Research

  • /ˈpraɪməri rɪˈsɜːrtʃ/
  • The collection of original data directly from the source through methods such as surveys, interviews, observations, or experiments, tailored to specific research objectives.
  • Nghiên cứu nguyên thủy
  • Conducting primary research provides firsthand insights and allows businesses to gather data that is relevant and specific to their needs.

6. Secondary Research

  • /ˈsɛkəndəri rɪˈsɜːrtʃ/
  • The analysis and interpretation of existing data and information collected by others, such as market reports, articles, publications, or databases, to gain insights or support decision-making.
  • Nghiên cứu phụ
  • Secondary research provides access to a wealth of existing information, saving time and resources compared to primary research.

7. Focus Group

  • /ˈfoʊkəs ɡruːp/
  • A qualitative research method that involves gathering a small group of individuals to participate in a guided discussion or conversation about a product, service, or topic to elicit opinions, feedback, and insights.
  • Nhóm tập trung
  • Focus groups provide rich, in-depth insights into consumer perceptions, attitudes, and preferences through interactive discussions.

8. Market Penetration

  • /ˈmɑːrkɪt ˌpɛnɪˈtreɪʃən/
  • The strategy of increasing market share or sales volume for a product or service within an existing market or customer segment, often through pricing strategies, promotions, or product enhancements.
  • Xâm nhập thị trường
  • Market penetration aims to capture a larger share of the market by attracting new customers or encouraging existing customers to buy more.

9. Market Share

  • /ˈmɑːrkɪt ʃɛər/
  • The percentage or portion of total sales or revenue that a company or product captures within a specific market or industry over a defined period.
  • Tỷ lệ thị phần
  • Increasing market share often involves outperforming competitors or expanding into new market segments.

10. Demographic Analysis

  • /ˌdɛməˈɡræfɪk əˈnæləsɪs/
  • The study and interpretation of demographic data, such as age, gender, income, education, and ethnicity, to understand population characteristics and consumer behavior.
  • Phân tích nhân khẩu học
  • Demographic analysis helps businesses identify target markets, tailor marketing strategies, and develop products or services that meet specific demographic needs.

11. Psychographic Segmentation

  • /ˌsaɪkəˈɡræfɪk ˌsɛɡmɛnˈteɪʃən/
  • The division of a market into segments based on psychological factors, such as values, lifestyles, interests, attitudes, and personality traits, to understand consumer motivations and preferences.
  • Phân đoạn tâm lý học
  • Psychographic segmentation goes beyond demographics to target consumers based on their values, beliefs, and behaviors.

12. Market Entry Strategy

  • /ˈmɑːrkɪt ˈɛntri ˈstrætədʒi/
  • A plan or approach for entering a new market or expanding into a new geographic area, which may involve methods such as exporting, licensing, joint ventures, or acquisitions.
  • Chiến lược nhập thị trường
  • Choosing the right market entry strategy is crucial for businesses to effectively penetrate new markets and minimize risks.

13. Product Positioning

  • /ˈprɒdʌkt pəˈzɪʃənɪŋ/
  • The perception or image of a product or brand in relation to competitors in the minds of consumers, based on attributes, benefits, and value propositions communicated through marketing efforts.
  • Vị trí sản phẩm
  • Effective product positioning helps businesses differentiate their offerings, target specific market segments, and communicate unique selling points.

14. Marketing Mix

  • /ˈmɑːrkɪtɪŋ mɪks/
  • The combination of elements or variables that a company controls to influence consumer purchasing decisions and achieve marketing objectives, typically represented by the 4Ps: Product, Price, Place, and Promotion.
  • Tổ hợp tiếp thị
  • Optimizing the marketing mix involves strategically balancing product features, pricing strategies, distribution channels, and promotional activities.

15. Brand Equity

  • /brænd ˈɛkwɪti/
  • The perceived value or strength of a brand in the marketplace, including its reputation, customer loyalty, brand awareness, and associations, which can impact consumer behavior and purchase decisions.
  • Vốn thương hiệu
  • Building brand equity requires consistent branding efforts, positive customer experiences, and delivering on brand promises over time.

16. Market Saturation

  • /ˈmɑːrkɪt ˌsætʃəˈreɪʃən/
  • The point at which a market becomes fully saturated or reaches its maximum capacity in terms of demand, sales, or penetration, limiting opportunities for further growth or expansion.
  • Sự bão hòa thị trường
  • Market saturation may prompt businesses to explore new markets, innovate products, or diversify offerings to sustain growth.

17. Trend Analysis

  • /trɛnd əˈnæləsɪs/
  • The examination and interpretation of historical data or patterns over time to identify trends, cycles, or recurring phenomena that may influence future market behavior or developments.
  • Phân tích xu hướng
  • Trend analysis helps businesses anticipate changes, forecast demand, and make informed decisions to stay ahead of market shifts.

18. Competitive Intelligence

  • /kəmˈpɛtɪtɪv ɪnˈtɛlɪdʒəns/
  • The process of gathering, analyzing, and interpreting information about competitors' strategies, strengths, weaknesses, capabilities, and market positions to gain a competitive advantage.
  • Thông tin tình báo cạnh tranh
  • Competitive intelligence enables businesses to identify opportunities and threats in the market, anticipate competitor actions, and adjust their strategies accordingly.

13. Accounting and Taxation

  1. Accounting
    • /əˈkaʊntɪŋ/
    • The process of recording, summarizing, analyzing, and reporting financial transactions of a business.
    Kế toán
    Accounting helps businesses track their financial performance and make informed decisions.

  2. Financial Statement
    • /faɪˈnænʃəl ˈsteɪtmənt/
    • A formal record of the financial activities and position of a business, including the balance sheet, income statement, and cash flow statement.
    Bảng cân đối kế toán
    • Investors use financial statements to assess the financial health and performance of a company.

  3. Balance Sheet
    • /ˈbæləns ʃiːt/
    • A financial statement that provides a snapshot of a company's assets, liabilities, and shareholders' equity at a specific point in time.
    Bảng cân đối kế toán
    • The balance sheet shows the company's financial position and its ability to meet its obligations.

  4. Income Statement
    • /ˈɪnkʌm ˈsteɪtmənt/
    • A financial statement that summarizes a company's revenues, expenses, and net income over a specific period.
    Bảng kết quả kinh doanh
    • The **income statement **helps investors evaluate a company's profitability.

  5. Cash Flow Statement
    • /kæʃ floʊ ˈsteɪtmənt/
    • A financial statement that shows the sources and uses of cash by a company during a specific period, categorizing cash flows into operating, investing, and financing activities.
    Bảng dòng tiền
    • The cash flow statement indicates a company's ability to generate cash and meet its short-term obligations.

  6. GAAP (Generally Accepted Accounting Principles)
    • /ɡæp/
    • A set of accounting standards, principles, and procedures that companies use to prepare and present their financial statements in a consistent and comparable manner.
    Nguyên tắc kế toán được chấp nhận chung
    • Following GAAP ensures transparency and accuracy in financial reporting.

  7. Depreciation
    • /dɪˌprɪʃiˈeɪʃən/
    • The systematic allocation of the cost of a tangible asset over its useful life, reflecting the asset's gradual loss of value due to wear and tear, obsolescence, or other factors.
    Hao mòn
    Depreciation expense reduces a company's taxable income and reflects the true cost of using assets over time.

  8. Accrual Accounting
    • /əˈkruːəl əˈkaʊntɪŋ/
    • An accounting method that recognizes revenues and expenses when they are earned or incurred, regardless of when cash is exchanged.
    Kế toán tích lũy
    Accrual accounting provides a more accurate representation of a company's financial performance than cash accounting.

  9. Double-entry Accounting
    • /ˈdʌbəlˌɛntri əˈkaʊntɪŋ/
    • An accounting system where each financial transaction affects at least two accounts, with debits and credits recorded to maintain balance.
    Kế toán ghi sổ kép
    Double-entry accounting ensures accuracy in recording transactions and detecting errors.

  10. Trial Balance
    • /ˈtraɪəl ˈbæləns/
    • A list of all general ledger account balances at a specific point in time, used to ensure that debits equal credits and to prepare financial statements.
    Sổ cân đối kế toán
    • A trial balance is prepared before the financial statements to detect any errors in the accounting records.

11. Chart of Accounts

  • /tʃɑːt ʌv əˈkaʊnts/
  • A list of all the accounts used by a company, organized and classified according to the type of transactions and financial reporting requirements.
  • Sổ khoá kế toán
  • The chart of accounts provides a systematic framework for recording financial transactions.

12. Financial Ratios

  • /faɪˈnænʃəl ˈreɪʃiˌoʊz/
  • Quantitative measures calculated from financial statements to assess a company's performance, liquidity, solvency, and efficiency.
  • Tỷ số tài chính
  • Financial ratios help stakeholders evaluate a company's financial health and make comparisons with industry benchmarks.

13. Cost of Goods Sold (COGS)

  • /kɒst ʌv ɡʊdz soʊld/
  • The direct costs incurred in producing goods or services sold by a company during a specific period, including materials, labor, and overhead.
  • Chi phí hàng bán được
  • COGS is subtracted from revenue to calculate gross profit.

14. Gross Profit

  • /ɡroʊs ˈprɒfɪt/
  • The difference between revenue and the cost of goods sold, representing the profit generated from core business activities before deducting operating expenses.
  • Lợi nhuận gộp
  • Gross profit is a key measure of a company's profitability.

15. Net Income

  • /nɛt ˈɪnkʌm/
  • The amount of revenue that exceeds total expenses and taxes, representing the profit or loss earned by a company during a specific period.
  • Lợi nhuận sau thuế
  • Net income is a key indicator of a company's financial performance and is often reported on the income statement.

16. Accounts Payable

  • /əˈkaʊnts ˈpeɪəbl/
  • Amounts owed by a company to suppliers or creditors for goods or services purchased on credit.
  • Công nợ phải trả
  • Managing accounts payable effectively ensures timely payments and maintains good relationships with suppliers.

17. Accounts Receivable

  • /əˈkaʊnts rɪˈsiːvəbl/
  • Amounts owed to a company by customers or clients for goods or services sold on credit.
  • Công nợ phải thu
  • Monitoring accounts receivable helps businesses track outstanding payments and improve cash flow.

18. Taxation

  • /tækˈseɪʃən/
  • The system of levying taxes on individuals and businesses by governmental authorities to fund public expenditures and services.
  • Thuế
  • Understanding taxation laws and regulations is essential for compliance and minimizing tax liabilities.

19. Tax Return

  • /tæks rɪˈtɜːrn/
  • A form filed with tax authorities that reports an individual's or business's income, expenses, and other relevant financial information for a specific tax year.
  • Bảng kê khai thuế
  • Filing an accurate tax return is necessary to calculate the amount of taxes owed or refundable.

20. Tax Deduction

  • /tæks dɪˈdʌkʃən/
  • An expense or cost that can be subtracted from taxable income to reduce the amount of taxes owed.
  • Giảm trừ thuế
  • Common tax deductions for businesses include salaries, rent, and equipment purchases.

21. Tax Credit

  • /tæks ˈkrɛdɪt/
  • An amount subtracted directly from taxes owed to the government, typically based on specific criteria or expenditures.
  • Giảm trừ thuế
  • Investing in renewable energy technologies may qualify for tax credits as an incentive for promoting environmental sustainability.

22. Withholding Tax

  • /wɪθˈhoʊldɪŋ tæks/
  • A tax deducted at the source from income payments, such as wages or dividends, by the payer and remitted to the government on behalf of the recipient.
  • Thuế tạm trích
  • Employers withhold taxes from employees' paychecks to comply with tax regulations and ensure sufficient funds for tax obligations.

23. Tax Audit

  • /tæks ˈɔːdɪt/
  • An examination and review of an individual's or business's financial records and tax returns by tax authorities to verify compliance with tax laws and regulations.
  • Kiểm toán thuế
  • Being selected for a tax audit does not necessarily indicate wrongdoing but ensures accuracy and fairness in tax reporting.

24. Tax Evasion

  • /tæks ɪˈveɪʒən/
  • The illegal practice of intentionally underreporting income, inflating deductions, or hiding assets to reduce tax liabilities.
  • Trốn thuế
  • Tax evasion is punishable by fines, penalties, and in severe cases, imprisonment.

25. Tax Avoidance

  • /tæks əˈvɔɪdəns/
  • The legal practice of arranging one's financial affairs to minimize tax liability within the boundaries of tax laws and regulations.
  • Tránh thuế
  • Tax planning strategies, such as investing in tax-deferred retirement accounts, are examples of tax avoidance.

26. Excise Tax

  • /ˈɛksaɪz tæks/
  • A type of indirect tax imposed on specific goods, such as alcohol, tobacco, gasoline, and luxury items, at the time of manufacture or sale.
  • Thuế tiêu thụ
  • Excise taxes aim to discourage the consumption of certain products and generate revenue for the government.

27. Value Added Tax (VAT)

  • /ˈvæljuː ˈædɪd tæks/
  • A consumption tax levied on the value added to goods and services at each stage of production and distribution, ultimately borne by the end consumer.
  • Thuế giá trị gia tăng
  • VAT is a significant source of revenue for many governments and is widely used in countries around the world.

28. Property Tax

  • /ˈprɒpərti tæks/
  • A tax imposed by local governments on the assessed value of real estate properties, including land, buildings, and improvements.
  • Thuế bất động sản
  • Property tax revenues are used to fund public services such as schools, roads, and emergency services.

29. Capital Gains Tax

  • /ˈkæpɪtl ɡeɪnz tæks/
  • A tax levied on the profit earned from the sale of assets, such as stocks, bonds, real estate, or other investments.
  • Thuế thu nhập từ lợi tức vốn
  • Investors may be subject to capital gains tax when they sell assets at a higher price than their original purchase price.

30. Payroll Tax

  • /ˈpeɪroʊl tæks/
  • Taxes withheld from employees' wages by employers to finance social insurance programs, such as Social Security and Medicare.
  • Thuế tiền lương
  • Payroll taxes are also paid by employers, typically matching the amount withheld from employees' paychecks.

14. Business Law and Regulations

  1. Contract
    • A legally binding agreement between two or more parties, outlining their rights and obligations.
    Hợp đồng
    • Signing a contract ensures that all parties involved understand and agree to the terms of the agreement.

  2. Legal Entity
    ˈliːɡəl ˈentɪti
    • An organization or business that has legal rights and responsibilities separate from its owners or members.
    Thực thể pháp lý
    • Corporations and limited liability companies (LLCs) are examples of legal entities.

  3. Liability
    • Legal responsibility or obligation to pay debts or compensate for damages caused by one's actions or negligence.
    Trách nhiệm pháp lý
    • Limited liability protects business owners from personal liability for the debts of the business.

  4. Intellectual Property
    ˌɪntəˈlektʃuəl ˈprɒpəti
    • Intangible assets resulting from human creativity and innovation, such as patents, trademarks, copyrights, and trade secrets.
    Tài sản trí tuệ
    • Registering trademarks and patents protects intellectual property from unauthorized use or infringement.

  5. Copyright
    • Legal protection granted to the creators of original works, such as literary, artistic, or musical creations, preventing others from copying or distributing the work without permission.
    Bản quyền
    • Authors, artists, and musicians often copyright their works to retain control over their use and distribution.

  6. Trademark
    • A symbol, word, phrase, or design used to identify and distinguish the goods or services of one seller from those of others.
    Nhãn hiệu
    • Registering a trademark with the appropriate authorities provides legal protection against unauthorized use by competitors.

  7. Patent
    • A government-granted exclusive right that allows the inventor to exclude others from making, using, or selling their invention for a limited period.
    • Obtaining a patent ensures that inventors have the exclusive right to profit from their inventions for a certain period.

  8. Compliance
    • Adherence to laws, regulations, standards, and ethical practices relevant to a particular industry or jurisdiction.
    Tuân thủ
    • Businesses must ensure compliance with tax laws, safety regulations, and industry standards to avoid legal penalties.

  9. Antitrust Laws
    ˌæntiˈtrʌst lɔːz
    • Laws aimed at preventing unfair business practices, such as monopolies, price fixing, and collusion, that restrict competition and harm consumers.
    Luật chống độc quyền
    Antitrust laws promote fair competition and protect consumers from market abuses by large corporations.

  10. Trade Secret
    treɪd ˈsiːkrɪt
    • Confidential information, such as formulas, processes, or strategies, that provides a competitive advantage to a business and is kept secret from competitors.
    Bí mật thương mại
    • Protecting trade secrets through nondisclosure agreements prevents competitors from gaining access to valuable proprietary information.

11. Corporate Governance

  • /ˈkɔːpərət ˈɡʌvərnəns/
  • The system of rules, practices, and processes by which a company is directed, controlled, and managed in the best interest of stakeholders.
  • Quản trị doanh nghiệp
  • Effective corporate governance ensures transparency, accountability, and ethical decision-making within organizations.

12. Securities

  • /ˈsɛkjʊrɪtiz/
  • Financial instruments, such as stocks, bonds, and derivatives, that represent ownership or debt in a company and can be traded on financial markets.
  • Chứng khoán
  • Investors buy and sell securities to diversify their investment portfolios and earn returns.

13. Insider Trading

  • /ˈɪnsaɪdər ˈtreɪdɪŋ/
  • The illegal practice of buying or selling securities based on non-public, material information about a company, obtained by individuals with privileged access.
  • Giao dịch nội bộ
  • Insider trading undermines market integrity and fairness by giving insiders an unfair advantage over other investors.

14. Due Diligence

  • /ˌduː ˈdɪlɪdʒəns/
  • The investigation and evaluation of a business, investment, or transaction to assess its legal, financial, and operational risks and potential benefits.
  • Sự thận trọng
  • Conducting due diligence helps investors make informed decisions and mitigate the risk of unforeseen liabilities or problems.

15. Arbitration

  • /ˌɑːbɪˈtreɪʃən/
  • A method of alternative dispute resolution where parties involved in a legal dispute agree to submit their case to a neutral third party (arbitrator) for a binding decision.
  • Trọng tài xử lý tranh chấp
  • Arbitration is often used as a faster and more cost-effective alternative to litigation for resolving business disputes.

16. Compliance Officer

  • /kəmˈplaɪəns ˈɒfɪsər/
  • An individual within an organization responsible for ensuring that the company complies with all relevant laws, regulations, and internal policies.
  • Nhân viên tuân thủ
  • The compliance officer monitors regulatory changes and implements policies to minimize legal risks and maintain ethical standards.

17. Regulatory Compliance

  • /ˌrɛɡjʊˈleɪtəri kəmˈplaɪəns/
  • The process of ensuring that a company adheres to laws, regulations, and industry standards applicable to its operations and business activities.
  • Tuân thủ quy định
  • Regulatory compliance is essential for businesses to operate legally and avoid fines or penalties.

18. Discrimination

  • /dɪˌskrɪmɪˈneɪʃən/
  • Unfair treatment or prejudice against individuals or groups based on characteristics such as race, gender, age, religion, or disability.
  • Phân biệt đối xử
  • Employers must establish policies and procedures to prevent discrimination in hiring, promotion, and workplace practices.

19. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)

  • /ˌɒkjəˈpeɪʃənəl ˈseɪfti ænd hɛlθ ˌædmɪnɪˈstreɪʃən/
  • A federal agency in the United States responsible for setting and enforcing standards to ensure safe and healthy working conditions.
  • Cơ quan An toàn và Sức khỏe Nghề nghiệp
  • OSHA conducts inspections and investigates workplace accidents to enforce safety regulations.

20. Whistleblower

  • /ˈwɪslbloʊər/
  • An individual who exposes or reports illegal, unethical, or fraudulent activities within an organization to authorities or the public.
  • Người tố cáo
  • Whistleblower protection laws safeguard employees from retaliation for reporting misconduct or violations of the law.

21. Trade Regulation

  • /treɪd ˌrɛɡjʊˈleɪʃən/
  • Laws and policies governing the conduct of trade and commerce, including regulations related to competition, consumer protection, and fair trade practices.
  • Quy định thương mại
  • Trade regulation aims to promote fair competition, protect consumers, and prevent monopolistic practices.

22. Consumer Protection

  • /kənˈsjuːmər prəˈtɛkʃən/
  • Laws and measures designed to safeguard consumers' rights and interests, ensuring fair treatment, product safety, and truthful advertising.
  • Bảo vệ người tiêu dùng
  • Consumer protection laws prohibit deceptive practices and provide avenues for consumers to seek redress for grievances.

23. Non-Disclosure Agreement (NDA)

  • /ˈnɒn dɪˈskloʊʒ əˈɡriːmənt/
  • A legal contract between parties agreeing to protect confidential information shared during business transactions or partnerships.
  • Hợp đồng không tiết lộ thông tin
  • Signing an NDA ensures that sensitive information remains confidential and cannot be disclosed to third parties.

24. Securities Exchange Commission (SEC)

  • /sɪˈkjʊrətiz ɪksˈʧeɪndʒ kəˈmɪʃən/
  • A regulatory agency in the United States responsible for overseeing and enforcing federal securities laws, protecting investors, and maintaining fair and efficient capital markets.
  • Ủy ban Giao dịch Chứng khoán
  • The SEC regulates securities exchanges, securities professionals, and securities offerings to ensure transparency and market integrity.

25. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)

  • /ˈkɔːpərət ˈsoʊʃəl rɪˌspɒnsəˈbɪlɪti/
  • The ethical framework and practices adopted by businesses to contribute positively to society and the environment, beyond legal obligations and financial interests.
  • Trách nhiệm xã hội doanh nghiệp
  • Companies engage in CSR activities such as philanthropy, environmental sustainability, and ethical labor practices to build trust and reputation.

26. Merger and Acquisition (M&A)

  • /ˈmɜːrdʒər ænd ˌækwɪˈzɪʃən/
  • The consolidation of two or more companies through the purchase, sale, or combination of assets or ownership interests.
  • Sáp nhập và Mua lại
  • M&A transactions require compliance with antitrust laws and regulatory approval to prevent monopolistic behavior and protect market competition.

27. Privacy Policy

  • /ˈpraɪvəsi ˈpɒləsi/
  • A statement or legal document disclosing how a company collects, uses, stores, and protects personal information obtained from users or customers.
  • Chính sách bảo mật
  • Websites and online platforms are required to have privacy policies to inform users about data practices and comply with data protection regulations.

28. Environmental Regulation

  • /ɪnˌvaɪrənˈmɛntl ˌrɛɡjʊˈleɪʃən/
  • Laws and policies aimed at protecting the environment, conserving natural resources, and preventing pollution or ecological damage caused by human activities.
  • Quy định môi trường
  • Environmental regulations impose standards and requirements on businesses to minimize their environmental impact and promote sustainability.

29. Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA)

  • /fɛr ˈleɪbər ˈstændərdz ækt/
  • A federal law in the United States that establishes minimum wage, overtime pay, recordkeeping, and child labor standards for employees in the private and public sectors.
  • Đạo luật Tiêu chuẩn Lao động Công bằng
  • The FLSA protects workers' rights and ensures fair compensation for labor performed.

30. Intellectual Property Rights (IPR)

  • /ˌɪntəˈlɛktʃuəl ˈprɒpəti raɪts/
  • Legal rights that protect the creations of the human mind, such as inventions, literary and artistic works, trademarks, and trade secrets.
  • Quyền sở hữu trí tuệ
  • Intellectual property rights enable creators and innovators to control and profit from their creations, fostering innovation and creativity in society.

15. Organizational Behavior

Organizational Behavior

  • /ˌɔːɡənaɪˈzeɪʃənl bɪˈheɪvjər/
  • The study of how individuals and groups behave within organizations, including their interactions, attitudes, motivations, and performance.
  • Hành vi tổ chức
  • Example: Organizational behavior examines factors influencing employee satisfaction and productivity.


  • /ˌmoʊtɪˈveɪʃən/
  • The internal and external factors that drive individuals to take action, achieve goals, and satisfy needs, influencing their behavior and performance.
  • Động lực
  • Example: Offering recognition and rewards can enhance employee motivation and engagement.


  • /ˈliːdərʃɪp/
  • The ability to influence, guide, and inspire individuals or groups towards achieving shared goals or objectives within an organization.
  • Lãnh đạo
  • Example: Effective leadership involves setting a clear vision and empowering team members to succeed.


  • /kəˌmjuːnɪˈkeɪʃən/
  • The process of exchanging information, ideas, thoughts, and feelings through verbal, non-verbal, or written means, within and across organizational boundaries.
  • Giao tiếp
  • Example: Open and transparent communication fosters trust and collaboration among team members.


  • /ˈtiːmˌwɜːrk/
  • Collaborative efforts by individuals working together towards a common goal or objective, leveraging their complementary skills, knowledge, and abilities.
  • Làm việc nhóm
  • Example: Effective teamwork requires clear roles, communication, and mutual support among team members.

Organizational Culture

  • /ˌɔːɡənaɪˈzeɪʃənl ˈkʌltʃər/
  • The shared values, beliefs, norms, attitudes, and behaviors that characterize an organization and shape its identity, practices, and interactions.
  • Văn hóa tổ chức
  • Example: A strong organizational culture promotes employee engagement and alignment with company goals.


  • /daɪˈvɜːrsəti/
  • The presence of differences among individuals within a group or organization, encompassing dimensions such as race, ethnicity, gender, age, culture, and background.
  • Đa dạng
  • Example: Embracing diversity fosters creativity, innovation, and inclusion in the workplace.

Decision Making

  • /dɪˈsɪʒən ˈmeɪkɪŋ/
  • The process of identifying, evaluating, and choosing among alternative courses of action or solutions to a problem or opportunity.
  • Ra quyết định
  • Example: Effective decision making requires analyzing information, considering alternatives, and weighing risks and benefits.

Conflict Resolution

  • /ˈkɒnflɪkt ˌrɛzəˈluːʃən/
  • The process of addressing and resolving disagreements, disputes, or conflicts between individuals or groups within an organization in a constructive and mutually beneficial manner.
  • Giải quyết xung đột
  • Example: Mediation and negotiation techniques can facilitate conflict resolution and promote harmony in the workplace.

Employee Engagement

  • /ɪmˈplɔɪiː ɪnˈɡeɪdʒmənt/
  • The emotional, intellectual, and motivational commitment of employees to their work, roles, and organization, leading to discretionary effort, productivity, and performance.
  • Sự cam kết của nhân viên
  • Example: Engaged employees are more likely to contribute positively to the success and growth of the organization.

Job Satisfaction

  • /dʒɒb ˌsætɪsˈfækʃən/
  • The extent to which employees feel content, fulfilled, and satisfied with their job roles, tasks, working conditions, and overall work experience.
  • Hài lòng với công việc
  • Example: Providing opportunities for career development can enhance job satisfaction and retention.

Stress Management

  • /strɛs ˈmænɪdʒmənt/
  • The process of identifying, reducing, and coping with stressors or sources of pressure in the workplace to maintain physical, mental, and emotional well-being.
  • Quản lý căng thẳng
  • Example: Offering stress management workshops can help employees build resilience and cope with work-related stressors.

Organizational Structure

  • /ˌɔːɡənaɪˈzeɪʃənl ˈstrʌktʃər/
  • The framework or arrangement of roles, responsibilities, authority, and relationships within an organization, defining how tasks and activities are coordinated, managed, and executed.
  • Cấu trúc tổ chức
  • Example: A hierarchical organizational structure clarifies reporting lines and decision-making authority within the organization.

Performance Appraisal

  • /pəˈfɔːməns əˈpreɪzl/
  • The process of evaluating and assessing an employee's job performance, skills, competencies, and contributions against predetermined criteria or standards.
  • Đánh giá hiệu suất
  • Example: Regular performance appraisals provide feedback and identify areas for improvement and development.

Change Management

  • /tʃeɪndʒ ˈmænɪdʒmənt/
  • The process of planning, implementing, and managing organizational changes effectively to minimize resistance, disruptions, and negative impacts, and ensure successful adoption and sustainability.
  • Quản lý thay đổi
  • Example: Change management involves communicating the rationale for change and engaging stakeholders in the process.


  • /ɪˈkɒnəmi/
  • The system of production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services within a region or country.
  • Nền kinh tế
  • The economy grew by 3% last quarter, driven by increased consumer spending.

GDP (Gross Domestic Product)

  • /ɡrəʊs dəˈmɛstɪk ˈprɒdʌkt/
  • The total value of all goods and services produced within a country's borders in a specific period, often used as a measure of economic performance.
  • GDP (Sản phẩm quốc nội)
  • The GDP of the country increased by 5% this year, indicating economic growth.


  • /ɪnˈfleɪʃən/
  • The rate at which the general level of prices for goods and services rises, leading to a decrease in purchasing power over time.
  • Lạm phát
  • High inflation can erode savings and reduce the real value of money.


  • /dɪˈfleɪʃən/
  • The opposite of inflation, characterized by a decrease in the general price level of goods and services, often leading to reduced consumer spending.
  • Động lực
  • Deflationary pressures can lead to economic stagnation and unemployment.

Unemployment Rate

  • /ʌnɪmˈplɔɪmənt reɪt/
  • The percentage of the labor force that is unemployed and actively seeking employment.
  • Tỷ lệ thất nghiệp
  • The unemployment rate rose to 7% as businesses downsized due to the recession.


  • /rɪˈsɛʃən/
  • A significant decline in economic activity characterized by a decrease in GDP, employment, and consumer spending lasting for a prolonged period.
  • Suy thoái kinh tế
  • The country entered a recession as businesses struggled to stay afloat amidst the economic downturn.


  • /rɪˈkʌvəri/
  • The period following a recession when economic activity begins to rebound, leading to an increase in GDP, employment, and consumer confidence.
  • Phục hồi
  • The government implemented stimulus measures to accelerate the economic recovery.

Economic Growth

  • /ɪˌkɒnəˈmɪk ɡrəʊθ/
  • An increase in the production of goods and services within an economy, typically measured by the percentage change in GDP over time.
  • Tăng trưởng kinh tế
  • Policies promoting investment and innovation can stimulate economic growth.

Fiscal Policy

  • /ˈfɪskəl ˈpɒləsi/
  • Government policies concerning taxation and public spending aimed at influencing economic conditions, controlling inflation, and promoting growth.
  • Chính sách tài khóa
  • The government implemented expansionary fiscal policies to boost aggregate demand during the recession.

Monetary Policy

  • /ˈmʌnɪtəri ˈpɒləsi/
  • The control of the money supply and interest rates by a central bank to influence economic activity, inflation, and employment.
  • Chính sách tiền tệ
  • The central bank raised interest rates to curb inflationary pressures in the economy.

Consumer Confidence

  • /kənˈsjuːmər ˈkɒnfɪdəns/
  • The degree of optimism or pessimism consumers feel about the state of the economy, influencing their spending and saving behavior.
  • Niềm tin của người tiêu dùng
  • Rising consumer confidence indicates faith in the economy, leading to increased spending and investment.

Trade Balance

  • /treɪd ˈbæləns/
  • The difference between a country's exports and imports of goods and services, indicating the net flow of trade with other countries.
  • Cân đối thương mại
  • A trade surplus occurs when exports exceed imports, while a trade deficit occurs when imports exceed exports.

Economic Indicator

  • /ˌiːkəˈnɒmɪk ˈɪndɪkeɪtər/
  • Statistics or data points used to gauge the performance and health of an economy, such as GDP, unemployment rate, and inflation rate.
  • Chỉ số kinh tế
  • Leading economic indicators provide insights into future economic trends and business cycles.

Supply and Demand

  • /səˈplaɪ ənd dɪˈmænd/
  • The fundamental economic principle that describes the relationship between the quantity of a good or service supplied by producers and the quantity demanded by consumers at various price levels.
  • Cung cầu
  • When supply exceeds demand, prices tend to decrease, while shortages occur when demand exceeds supply.

Gross National Product (GNP)

  • /ɡrəʊs ˈnæʃənəl ˈprɒdʌkt/
  • The total value of all goods and services produced by a country's residents, including income earned abroad, minus income earned by foreign residents domestically.
  • GNP (Sản phẩm quốc gia)
  • GNP provides a broader measure of a country's economic performance by accounting for income earned globally.


  • /ˌprɒdʌkˈtɪvɪti/
  • The efficiency with which inputs, such as labor and capital, are used to produce goods and services, typically measured as output per unit of input.
  • Năng suất
  • Improving productivity through technological innovation can drive economic growth and competitiveness.

Economic Development

  • /ˌiːkəˈnɒmɪk dɪˈveləpmənt/
  • The process of improving living standards, reducing poverty, and increasing the overall well-being of a population through sustained economic growth and structural change.
  • Phát triển kinh tế
  • Investment in education, healthcare, and infrastructure is essential for long-term economic development.

Trade War

  • /treɪd wɔːr/
  • A situation where countries impose tariffs or other trade barriers on each other's imports, leading to heightened tensions and disruptions in global trade.
  • Chiến tranh thương mại
  • The trade war between the two countries resulted in higher prices for consumers and reduced market access for exporters.
  1. Fiscal Deficit
  • /ˈfɪskəl ˈdɛfɪsɪt/
  • The situation where a government's total expenditures exceed its total revenue, resulting in a shortfall that needs to be financed through borrowing.
  • Thâm hụt ngân sách
  • A persistent fiscal deficit can lead to increased public debt and may require austerity measures or tax reforms to address.
  1. National Debt
  • /ˈnæʃənl dɛt/
  • The total amount of money owed by a government to its creditors, accumulated from years of budget deficits and borrowing.
  • Nợ công
  • Managing national debt levels is crucial to maintain investor confidence and prevent sovereign debt crises.
  1. Economic Downturn
  • /ˌiːkəˈnɒmɪk ˈdaʊntɜːn/
  • A period of economic decline characterized by reduced consumer spending, business investment, and overall economic activity.
  • Suy thoái kinh tế
  • The economic downturn resulted in job losses and declining household incomes.
  1. Economic Stimulus
  • /ˌiːkəˈnɒmɪk ˈstɪmjʊləs/
  • Measures implemented by governments or central banks to boost economic activity and restore confidence during periods of recession or stagnation.
  • Kích thích kinh tế
  • Tax cuts and infrastructure spending are common forms of economic stimulus.
  1. Economic Forecast
  • /ˌiːkəˈnɒmɪk ˈfɔːrkæst/
  • A prediction or estimate of future economic trends, performance, and indicators based on analysis of past data and current factors.
  • Dự báo kinh tế
  • Economic forecasts help businesses, policymakers, and investors make informed decisions and plan for the future.
  1. Economic Indicator
  • /ˌiːkəˈnɒmɪk ˈɪndɪkeɪtə/
  • Statistics or data points used to gauge the performance and health of an economy, such as GDP, unemployment rate, and inflation rate.
  • Chỉ số kinh tế
  • Leading economic indicators provide insights into future economic trends and business cycles.
  1. Consumer Spending
  • /kənˈsjuːmər ˈspɛndɪŋ/
  • The total expenditure by households on goods and services, representing a significant component of aggregate demand in an economy.
  • Chi tiêu của người tiêu dùng
  • Consumer spending accounts for approximately 70% of GDP in many developed economies.
  1. Trade Surplus
  • /treɪd ˈsɜːpləs/
  • A situation where a country exports more goods and services than it imports, resulting in a positive balance of trade.
  • Thặng dư thương mại
  • China maintains a trade surplus with many countries due to its strong export-oriented economy.
  1. Trade Deficit
  • /treɪd ˈdɛfɪsɪt/
  • The situation where a country imports more goods and services than it exports, resulting in a negative balance of trade.
  • Thiếu hụt thương mại
  • The trade deficit widened as imports of consumer goods outpaced export growth.
  1. Economic Inequality
  • /ˌiːkəˈnɒmɪk ɪnɪˈkwɒlɪti/
  • The unequal distribution of wealth, income, or opportunities within a society or between different segments of the population.
  • Bất bình đẳng kinh tế
  • Rising economic inequality can lead to social tensions and undermine long-term economic growth and stability.
  1. Monetary Policy
  • /ˈmʌnɪtəri ˈpɒləsi/
  • The control of the money supply and interest rates by a central bank to influence economic activity, inflation, and employment.
  • Chính sách tiền tệ
  • The central bank raised interest rates to curb inflationary pressures in the economy.
  1. Economic Recovery
  • /ˌiːkəˈnɒmɪk rɪˈkʌvəri/
  • The phase of the business cycle following a recession characterized by a return to economic growth, increased consumer spending, and rising employment.
  • Sự phục hồi kinh tế
  • The government's stimulus measures contributed to the economic recovery after the financial crisis.

17. Strategic Management


  • /ˈstrætədʒi/
  • A plan of action designed to achieve a specific goal or objective, outlining the organization's direction, allocation of resources, and competitive advantage.
  • Chiến lược
  • Example: The company developed a new marketing strategy to enter international markets.


  • /ˈvɪʒən/
  • A long-term aspirational statement that articulates the organization's desired future state, guiding its decisions, priorities, and strategic direction.
  • Tầm nhìn
  • Example: The CEO's vision for the company is to become a global leader in sustainable technology.


  • /ˈmɪʃən/
  • A concise statement that defines the purpose, core values, and primary objectives of an organization, guiding its strategy and operations.
  • Sứ mệnh
  • Example: The company's mission is to provide affordable healthcare solutions to underserved communities.

SWOT Analysis

  • /swɒt əˈnæləsɪs/
  • An analytical framework used to assess an organization's internal strengths and weaknesses, as well as external opportunities and threats, to inform strategic decision-making.
  • Phân tích SWOT
  • Example: The management team conducted a SWOT analysis to identify key areas for improvement and growth.

Competitive Advantage

  • /kəmˈpɛtɪtɪv ədˈvæntɪdʒ/
  • The unique set of strengths, capabilities, or resources that enables an organization to outperform its competitors and achieve superior performance in the marketplace.
  • Ưu thế cạnh tranh
  • Example: Our company's strong brand reputation is a significant competitive advantage in the industry.

Strategic Planning

  • /strəˈtiːdʒɪk ˈplænɪŋ/
  • The process of setting goals, defining strategies, and allocating resources to achieve long-term objectives and fulfill the organization's mission and vision.
  • Lập kế hoạch chiến lược
  • Example: The strategic planning session focused on identifying growth opportunities and prioritizing strategic initiatives.


  • /əbˈdʒɛktɪvz/
  • Specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound goals or targets that support the organization's mission and strategic priorities.
  • Mục tiêu
  • Example: Our primary objective this year is to increase market share by 15%.

Core Competencies

  • /kɔːr kəmˈpɛtənsiz/
  • The unique strengths, skills, capabilities, or expertise that distinguish an organization from its competitors and form the basis of its competitive advantage.
  • Năng lực cốt lõi
  • Example: Our core competencies in research and development enable us to innovate and launch new products ahead of the competition.

Strategic Alignment

  • /strəˈtiːdʒɪk əˈlaɪnmənt/
  • The process of ensuring that the organization's goals, objectives, and actions are closely integrated and consistent with its mission, vision, and overall strategy.
  • Căn chỉnh chiến lược
  • Example: Achieving strategic alignment requires clear communication and coordination across all levels of the organization.


  • /ˌdɪfəˌrɛnʃiˈeɪʃən/
  • A strategy aimed at creating perceived uniqueness or value for a product or service in the minds of customers, distinguishing it from competitors' offerings.
  • Phân biệt
  • Example: Our product differentiation strategy focuses on offering high-quality features and superior customer service.

Cost Leadership

  • /kɒst ˈliːdəʃɪp/
  • A strategy aimed at becoming the lowest-cost producer or provider in the industry, enabling the organization to offer products or services at competitive prices and gain market share.
  • Lãnh đạo chi phí
  • Example: The company adopted a cost leadership strategy by optimizing production processes and reducing operating expenses.

Market Penetration

  • /ˈmɑːrkɪt ˌpɛnɪˈtreɪʃən/
  • A growth strategy that involves increasing market share or sales volume for existing products or services in current markets through aggressive marketing, pricing, or distribution tactics.
  • Xâm nhập thị trường
  • Example: The company implemented a market penetration strategy by offering discounts and promotions to attract new customers.

Product Development

  • /ˈprɒdʌkt dɪˈvɛləpmənt/
  • The process of creating, designing, and introducing new products or improving existing ones to meet customer needs, preferences, or market opportunities.
  • Phát triển sản phẩm
  • Example: Our product development team is working on launching a new line of eco-friendly packaging solutions.

Market Development

  • /ˈmɑːrkɪt dɪˈvɛləpmənt/
  • A growth strategy that involves expanding into new markets or market segments with existing products or services, either geographically or demographically, to increase sales and revenue.
  • Phát triển thị trường
  • Example: The company pursued market development by entering emerging markets in Asia-Pacific.


  • /daɪˌvɜːsɪfɪˈkeɪʃən/
  • A strategic approach that involves expanding the range of products or services offered or entering new business areas or industries to spread risk, capitalize on new opportunities, or achieve growth.
  • Đa dạng hóa
  • Example: The company pursued diversification by acquiring a software development firm to complement its hardware business.

Strategic Alliance

  • /strəˈtiːdʒɪk əˈlaɪəns/
  • A cooperative agreement or partnership between two or more organizations to pursue common objectives, share resources, capabilities, or risks, and gain competitive advantage in the marketplace.
  • Liên minh chiến lược
  • Example: The strategic alliance between the two companies allowed

18. Entrepreneurship


  • /ˌɑːn.trə.prəˈnɝː.ʃɪp/
  • The process of identifying, creating, and pursuing opportunities to start and grow new ventures or businesses, often characterized by innovation, risk-taking, and creativity.
  • Doanh nhân
  • Example: Entrepreneurship plays a vital role in driving economic growth and innovation.


  • /ˈstɑːrt.ʌp/
  • A newly established business venture or company, typically characterized by its innovative ideas, high growth potential, and agile approach to product development and market entry.
  • Doanh nghiệp khởi nghiệp
  • Example: The startup secured funding from venture capitalists to develop its mobile app.


  • /ˌɪn.əˈveɪ.ʃən/
  • The process of introducing new ideas, products, services, processes, or technologies that create value, solve problems, or meet needs in novel ways, often leading to competitive advantage.
  • Sáng tạo
  • Example: Continuous innovation is essential for startups to stay competitive in the market.

Business Model

  • /ˈbɪz.nəs ˈmɑː.dəl/
  • The framework or plan that outlines how a business generates revenue, delivers value to customers, and sustains its operations, including its key activities, resources, and customer segments.
  • Mô hình kinh doanh
  • Example: The startup's business model relies on subscription-based revenue from its online platform.

Venture Capital

  • /ˈven.tʃər ˈkæp.ɪ.təl/
  • Funding provided to early-stage, high-potential startups or entrepreneurial ventures by investors or venture capital firms in exchange for equity ownership, with the expectation of significant returns on investment.
  • Vốn rủi ro
  • Example: The startup raised $1 million in venture capital to scale its operations.

Angel Investor

  • /ˈeɪn.dʒəl ɪnˈvɛs.tər/
  • An individual or affluent individual who provides capital, mentorship, and support to startups or early-stage companies in exchange for equity ownership or convertible debt.
  • Nhà đầu tư thiên thần
  • Example: The angel investor invested $100,000 in the startup to help it launch its product.

Business Plan

  • /ˈbɪz.nəs plæn/
  • A formal document that outlines the objectives, strategies, operations, and financial forecasts of a business venture, serving as a roadmap for its development and growth.
  • Kế hoạch kinh doanh
  • Example: The startup's business plan included market analysis, revenue projections, and marketing strategies.


  • /ˌskeɪ.ləˈbɪl.ə.t̬i/
  • The ability of a business or product to handle increasing demand or growth without compromising performance, efficiency, or quality, often achieved through the use of scalable processes or technologies.
  • Khả năng mở rộng
  • Example: The startup's cloud-based platform was designed for scalability to accommodate growing user traffic.

Market Research

  • /ˈmɑːr.kɪt rɪˈsɜːrtʃ/
  • The process of gathering, analyzing, and interpreting information about a target market, including its size, demographics, trends, preferences, and competitors, to inform business decisions and strategies.
  • Nghiên cứu thị trường
  • Example: Conducting market research helped the startup identify customer needs and preferences.

MVP (Minimum Viable Product)

  • /ˈmɪnɪməm ˈvaɪəbl ˈprɑː.dʌkt/
  • The earliest version of a product with just enough features and functionality to satisfy initial customers and gather feedback, allowing for iterative development and improvement.
  • Sản phẩm tối thiểu cần có
  • Example: The startup launched its MVP to validate market demand before investing in further development.


  • /ˈbuːt.stræp.ɪŋ/
  • The practice of starting and growing a business with minimal external capital or financial resources, relying on personal savings, revenue reinvestment, or sweat equity.
  • Tự lực
  • Example: The founders resorted to bootstrapping to launch their startup without external funding.


  • /ˈpɪv.ət/
  • The strategic redirection or adjustment of a startup's business model, product, or market focus in response to changing market conditions, customer feedback, or internal insights.
  • Sự xoay trục
  • Example: The startup decided to pivot its product offering based on feedback from early adopters.


  • /dɪsˈrʌp.ʃən/
  • The process by which new innovations, technologies, or business models fundamentally alter or transform existing industries, markets, or value chains, often displacing incumbent players.
  • Sự đột phá
  • Example: Airbnb caused disruption in the hospitality industry by offering alternative accommodation options to traditional hotels.


  • /ˈɪŋ.kjəˌbeɪ.t̬ɚ/
  • An organization, program, or facility that provides resources, support, and mentorship to early-stage startups or entrepreneurs, helping them develop their ideas and grow their businesses.
  • Ấp ủ
  • Example: The startup joined a business incubator to access mentorship and networking opportunities.

Exit Strategy

  • /ˈek.sɪt ˈstræt̬.ə.dʒi/
  • A plan or strategy devised by entrepreneurs or investors to liquidate or divest their ownership stake in a business venture, typically through acquisition, IPO, or merger.
  • Chiến lược thoát ra
  • Example: The founders developed an exit strategy to sell the company to a larger competitor.

Intellectual Property (IP)

  • /ˌɪn.t̬əˈlek.tʃu.əl ˈprɑː.pɚ.t̬i/
  • Legal rights granted to individuals or organizations to protect their intangible assets, inventions, creations, or innovations, including patents, trademarks, copyrights, and trade secrets.
  • Tài sản trí tuệ
  • Example: The startup filed for a patent to protect its innovative technology.


  • /ˈkraʊdˌfʌn.dɪŋ/
  • A method of raising capital or funds for a project, venture, or cause by soliciting small contributions from a large number of individuals or investors, typically through online platforms.
  • Quyên góp từ cộng đồng
  • Example: The startup launched a crowdfunding campaign to finance the development of its new product.


  • /ˈjuː.nɪ.kɔːrn/
  • A startup company that achieves a valuation of $1 billion or more, often within a relatively short period, attracting significant attention and investment from venture capitalists and the media.
  • Con kỳ lân
  • Example: The tech startup became a unicorn after its latest funding round.

Lean Startup

  • /liːn ˈstɑːrt.ʌp/
  • A methodology for developing businesses and products that emphasizes rapid experimentation, iterative product development, and validated learning, aiming to reduce waste and maximize efficiency.
  • Startup thon gọn
  • Example: The lean startup approach helped the entrepreneur quickly test and validate market demand for the product.

Serial Entrepreneur

  • /ˈsɪr.i.əl ˌɑːn.trə.prəˈnɝː/
  • An individual who repeatedly starts, builds, and grows new businesses or ventures, often leveraging their experience, networks, and resources across multiple ventures.
  • Doanh nhân liên tục
  • Example: The serial entrepreneur founded and sold several successful startups throughout his career.

19. Corporate Governance

Board of Directors

  • /bɔːrd əv daɪˈrɛktərz/
  • A group of individuals elected by shareholders to oversee the management and strategic direction of a company.
  • Hội đồng quản trị
  • The board of directors is responsible for appointing executives and setting corporate policies.


  • /ˈʃeəˌhoʊldər/
  • An individual or entity that owns shares or equity in a company and therefore has ownership rights and claims to a portion of its profits.
  • Cổ đông
  • Shareholders exercise voting rights and may attend annual general meetings to voice their opinions on company matters.


  • /ˈsteɪkhoʊldər/
  • Any individual, group, or entity that is affected by or can affect the decisions and actions of a company, including shareholders, employees, customers, suppliers, and communities.
  • Bên liên quan
  • Effective corporate governance considers the interests of all stakeholders, not just shareholders.


  • /əˌkaʊntəˈbɪləti/
  • The obligation of individuals or entities to accept responsibility for their actions, decisions, and performance.
  • Trách nhiệm
  • Corporate leaders are accountable to shareholders and other stakeholders for the company's success and adherence to ethical standards.


  • /ˈɛθɪks/
  • Moral principles and values that guide behavior and decision-making in business, emphasizing integrity, honesty, fairness, and respect for stakeholders.
  • Đạo đức
  • Upholding ethical standards is essential for maintaining trust and credibility in corporate governance.


  • /kəmˈplaɪəns/
  • Adherence to laws, regulations, standards, and ethical practices relevant to a particular industry or jurisdiction.
  • Tuân thủ
  • Compliance with legal and regulatory requirements is a key aspect of effective corporate governance.

Code of Conduct

  • /koʊd əv ˈkɒndʌkt/
  • A set of principles, rules, and guidelines that define acceptable behavior and ethical standards for employees and representatives of a company.
  • Quy định ứng xử
  • The code of conduct outlines expectations for professionalism, integrity, and respect in the workplace.

Independent Director

  • /ˌɪndɪˈpɛndənt daɪˈrɛktər/
  • A member of the board of directors who does not have any material relationship with the company, its management, or significant shareholders, ensuring impartiality and objectivity in decision-making.
  • Hội đồng quản trị độc lập
  • Independent directors provide oversight and challenge management decisions to protect shareholder interests.

Executive Compensation

  • /ɪɡˈzɛkjətɪv kəmˌpɛnˈseɪʃən/
  • The financial and non-financial rewards, such as salary, bonuses, stock options, and benefits, provided to top executives and management for their services and performance.
  • Chi trả cho các cán bộ quản lý
  • Ensuring transparency and aligning executive compensation with company performance is essential for good corporate governance.

Audit Committee

  • /ˈɔːdɪt kəˈmɪti/
  • A subcommittee of the board of directors responsible for overseeing the company's financial reporting process, internal controls, and external audit functions.
  • Ủy ban kiểm toán
  • The audit committee helps ensure the accuracy and integrity of financial statements and compliance with accounting standards.

Internal Controls

  • /ˈɪntərnəl kənˈtroʊlz/
  • Policies, procedures, and systems implemented by a company to safeguard assets, ensure accuracy in financial reporting, and prevent fraud and misappropriation.
  • Kiểm soát nội bộ
  • Effective internal controls reduce the risk of errors, irregularities, and financial losses.

Whistleblower Protection

  • /ˈwɪslbloʊər prəˈtɛkʃən/
  • Legal measures and safeguards provided to individuals who report or disclose unethical, illegal, or fraudulent activities within an organization, protecting them from retaliation or discrimination.
  • Bảo vệ người tố cáo
  • Whistleblower protection policies encourage employees to speak up about wrongdoing without fear of reprisal.

Board Diversity

  • /bɔːrd daɪˈvɜːrsɪti/
  • The representation of individuals from diverse backgrounds, experiences, genders, and ethnicities on the board of directors, promoting varied perspectives and decision-making.
  • Đa dạng trong hội đồng quản trị
  • Board diversity enhances governance effectiveness and reflects the broader interests of stakeholders.

Shareholder Activism

  • /ˈʃeəˌhoʊldər ˈæktɪvɪzəm/
  • The advocacy and engagement of shareholders to influence corporate policies, strategies, and governance practices through shareholder proposals, voting, and activism campaigns.
  • Hoạt động cổ đông
  • Shareholder activism can drive positive changes in corporate governance, accountability, and sustainability practices.

Proxy Voting

  • /ˈprɒksi ˈvəʊtɪŋ/
  • A process where a shareholder delegates their voting rights to another party, typically the company's management or a proxy advisor, to vote on their behalf at shareholder meetings.
  • Bỏ phiếu ủy quyền
  • Shareholders who are unable to attend meetings may use proxy voting to participate in corporate decision-making and governance matters.

Insider Trading

  • /ˈɪnsaɪdə ˈtreɪdɪŋ/
  • The buying or selling of a company's stock by individuals with access to non-public, material information about the company, in violation of securities laws and regulations.
  • Giao dịch nội gián
  • Insider trading undermines market integrity and fairness by giving insiders an unfair advantage over other investors.

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)

  • /ˈkɔːrpərət ˈsəʊʃəl rɪˌspɒnsəˈbɪlɪti/
  • The ethical framework and practices adopted by businesses to contribute positively to society and the environment, beyond legal obligations and financial interests.
  • Trách nhiệm xã hội doanh nghiệp
  • Companies engage in CSR activities such as philanthropy, environmental sustainability, and ethical labor practices to build trust and reputation.


  • /ˈdɪvɪdɛnd/
  • A portion of a company's profits distributed to its shareholders as a return on their investment, typically paid in cash or additional shares.
  • Cổ tức
  • Shareholders receive dividends as a reward for their ownership of the company's stock.

Fiduciary Duty

  • /fɪˈdjuːʃəri ˈdjuːti/
  • The legal obligation of directors, officers, and other fiduciaries to act in the best interests of the company and its shareholders, avoiding conflicts of interest and self-dealing.
  • Nghĩa vụ người giao nhiệm vụ
  • Fiduciary duty requires corporate leaders to prioritize the welfare of the company and its stakeholders over personal interests.

Shareholder Resolution

  • /ˈʃeəˌhoʊldər ˌrɛzəˈluːʃən/
  • A proposal submitted by a shareholder for consideration and vote at a company's shareholder meeting, addressing specific issues related to corporate governance, environmental concerns, or social responsibility.
  • Nghị quyết của cổ đông
  • Shareholder resolutions provide a mechanism for shareholders to express their views and influence corporate policies and practices.

Hostile Takeover

  • /ˈhɒstaɪl ˈteɪkoʊvər/
  • The acquisition of a company against the wishes of its management and board of directors, typically through the purchase of a significant portion of its shares in the open market or through a tender offer.
  • Sự tiếp quản không hoà thuận
  • Hostile takeovers often involve aggressive tactics and can result in significant changes in corporate governance and strategy.

Poison Pill

  • /ˈpɔɪzən pɪl/
  • A defensive strategy adopted by a company to deter or prevent hostile takeovers by making the acquisition financially unattractive or diluting the value of its stock.
  • Biện pháp phòng thủ
  • Poison pills typically involve issuing new shares, rights, or debt to existing shareholders, making it more expensive for potential acquirers to gain control.

Dual-Class Shares

  • /ˈdjuːəl klɑːs ˈʃɛrz/
  • A structure of share ownership where different classes of shares with varying voting rights are issued by a company, allowing founders or insiders to retain control while raising capital from public investors.
  • Cổ phiếu có hai lớp
  • Dual-class shares give certain shareholders disproportionate voting power, raising concerns about corporate governance and shareholder democracy.

Insider Trading

  • /ˈɪnsaɪdə ˈtreɪdɪŋ/
  • The buying or selling of a company's stock by individuals with access to non-public, material information about the company, in violation of securities laws and regulations.
  • Giao dịch nội gián
  • Insider trading undermines market integrity and fairness by giving insiders an unfair advantage over other investors.

Majority Voting

  • /məˈdʒɒrɪti ˈvoʊtɪŋ/
  • A corporate governance practice where directors are elected based on a majority of votes cast by shareholders, rather than a plurality, ensuring that directors have the support of a majority of shareholders.
  • Bỏ phiếu đa số
  • Majority voting increases director accountability and responsiveness to shareholder concerns.

Shareholder Engagement

  • /ˈʃeəˌhoʊldər ɪnˈɡeɪdʒmənt/
  • The ongoing dialogue and interaction between a company's management and its shareholders, aimed at understanding and addressing shareholder concerns, interests, and expectations.
  • Tương tác cổ đông
  • Effective shareholder engagement fosters transparency, trust, and alignment of interests between companies and their investors.

Governance Risk

  • /ˈɡʌvərnəns rɪsk/
  • The potential for inadequate or ineffective corporate governance practices to negatively impact a company's financial performance, reputation, and shareholder value.
  • Rủi ro quản trị
  • Governance risk encompasses issues such as board independence, executive compensation, and ethical conduct.

Sustainability Reporting

  • /səˌsteɪnəˈbɪlɪti rɪˈpɔːrtɪŋ/
  • The disclosure of environmental, social, and governance (ESG) performance and impacts by companies, providing stakeholders with information about the company's sustainability practices and initiatives.
  • Báo cáo bền vững
  • Sustainability reporting helps investors, consumers, and other stakeholders assess a company's long-term value creation and commitment to environmental and social responsibility.

10. Leadership and Management styles


  • /ˈliːdərʃɪp/
  • The ability to inspire, influence, and guide individuals or groups toward the achievement of shared goals and objectives.
  • Lãnh đạo
  • Effective leadership involves setting a clear vision, motivating team members, and fostering collaboration.


  • /ˈmænɪdʒmənt/
  • The process of planning, organizing, directing, and controlling resources and activities within an organization to achieve its objectives efficiently and effectively.
  • Quản lý
  • Good management ensures that tasks are completed on time, resources are utilized optimally, and goals are met.

Autocratic Leadership

  • /ɔːtəˈkrætɪk ˈliːdərʃɪp/
  • A leadership style characterized by centralized decision-making, where the leader exercises control and authority over team members with little input or participation.
  • Lãnh đạo độc tài
  • In an autocratic leadership style, decisions are made quickly, but it may lead to low morale and creativity among team members.

Democratic Leadership

  • /ˌdɛməˈkrætɪk ˈliːdərʃɪp/
  • A leadership style that encourages participation, collaboration, and decision-making by involving team members in the process, fostering a sense of ownership and empowerment.
  • Lãnh đạo dân chủ
  • Democratic leaders seek input from their team members before making decisions, promoting engagement and commitment.

Transformational Leadership

  • /ˌtrænsfərˈmeɪʃənl ˈliːdərʃɪp/
  • A leadership style that inspires and motivates followers to achieve extraordinary outcomes by articulating a compelling vision, fostering innovation, and encouraging personal growth and development.
  • Lãnh đạo biến đổi
  • Transformational leaders empower their team members, challenge the status quo, and create a culture of continuous improvement.

Transactional Leadership

  • /trænˈzækʃənl ˈliːdərʃɪp/
  • A leadership style focused on maintaining order and achieving specific goals through the use of rewards, punishments, and incentives to motivate and manage performance.
  • Lãnh đạo giao dịch
  • Transactional leaders set clear expectations, provide feedback, and reward or discipline team members based on their performance.

Servant Leadership

  • /ˈsɜːrvənt ˈliːdərʃɪp/
  • A leadership philosophy that emphasizes serving others and prioritizing their needs, interests, and development over personal ambition or authority.
  • Lãnh đạo phục vụ
  • Servant leaders focus on nurturing a supportive and inclusive environment, empowering team members to reach their full potential.

Laissez-Faire Leadership

  • /ˌlɛseɪ ˈfɛər ˈliːdərʃɪp/
  • A leadership style characterized by minimal interference or direction from the leader, allowing team members to make decisions and manage their own tasks independently.
  • Lãnh đạo để tự nhiên
  • In a laissez-faire leadership style, the leader provides guidance when needed but gives team members the freedom to innovate and problem-solve on their own.

Charismatic Leadership

  • /kærɪzˈmætɪk ˈliːdərʃɪp/
  • A leadership style characterized by charm, confidence, and persuasive communication, where the leader's personality and vision inspire followers to achieve extraordinary results.
  • Lãnh đạo lôi cuốn
  • Charismatic leaders have a strong presence and the ability to rally people around a common purpose or goal.

Bureaucratic Leadership

  • /bjʊəˈrɒkrətɪk ˈliːdərʃɪp/
  • A leadership style that relies on adherence to rules, procedures, and formalities, where decisions are made based on established protocols and hierarchical authority.
  • Lãnh đạo bẩm sinh
  • Bureaucratic leaders prioritize efficiency and consistency but may stifle creativity and innovation due to rigid structures and processes.

Situational Leadership

  • /ˌsɪtʃuˈeɪʃənl ˈliːdərʃɪp/
  • A leadership approach that adapts to the specific needs and circumstances of the situation or individuals, utilizing different leadership styles based on the level of readiness or development of followers.
  • Lãnh đạo tình hình
  • Situational leaders assess the capabilities and commitment of their team members to determine the most appropriate leadership approach.

Visionary Leadership

  • /ˈvɪʒənəri ˈliːdərʃɪp/
  • A leadership style characterized by the ability to envision the future, articulate a compelling vision, and inspire others to share and work towards achieving that vision.
  • Lãnh đạo tầm nhìn
  • Visionary leaders inspire innovation and change by painting a clear picture of the desired future state and motivating others to pursue it.

Coaching Leadership

  • /ˈkoʊtʃɪŋ ˈliːdərʃɪp/
  • A leadership approach focused on developing and empowering team members through mentoring, feedback, and guidance to enhance their skills, performance, and career growth.
  • Lãnh đạo huấn luyện
  • Coaching leaders provide support and resources to help individuals reach their full potential and achieve organizational objectives.

Adaptive Leadership

  • /əˈdæptɪv ˈliːdərʃɪp/
  • A leadership style that emphasizes flexibility, creativity, and resilience in navigating complex and rapidly changing environments, adjusting strategies and behaviors to address emerging challenges and opportunities.
  • Lãnh đạo thích ứng
  • Adaptive leaders encourage experimentation and learning, embracing change as a catalyst for growth and innovation.

Strategic Leadership

  • /ˈstrætɪdʒɪk ˈliːdərʃɪp/
  • A leadership style focused on setting direction, formulating strategies, and aligning resources and capabilities to achieve long-term organizational goals and competitive advantage.
  • Lãnh đạo chiến lược
  • Strategic leaders anticipate market trends, anticipate opportunities and threats, and guide the organization in making informed decisions to stay ahead of the competition.

Team Leadership

  • /tiːm ˈliːdərʃɪp/
  • A leadership approach that emphasizes collaboration, communication, and cohesion among team members to achieve common objectives, leveraging the strengths and diversity of the team.
  • Lãnh đạo nhóm
  • Team leaders facilitate teamwork, foster a positive team culture, and motivate individuals to work together towards shared goals.

Participative Leadership

  • /pɑːˈtɪsɪpətɪv ˈliːdərʃɪp/
  • A leadership style that encourages involvement, input, and decision-making by team members, fostering a sense of ownership, commitment, and accountability.
  • Lãnh đạo tham gia
  • Participative leaders value the perspectives and contributions of their team members, leveraging collective intelligence to make better decisions and solve problems.

Emotional Intelligence

  • /ɪˈmoʊʃənəl ˌɪnˈtɛlɪdʒəns/
  • The ability to recognize, understand, and manage one's own emotions and those of others, influencing interpersonal relationships, communication, and decision-making.
  • Trí tuệ cảm xúc
  • Leaders with high emotional intelligence can inspire trust, resolve conflicts, and motivate others effectively.

Cross-Cultural Leadership

  • /krɒsˈkʌltʃərəl ˈliːdərʃɪp/
  • A leadership approach that acknowledges and navigates cultural differences and diversity within teams or organizations, adapting communication and leadership styles to foster inclusivity and effectiveness.
  • Lãnh đạo đa văn hóa
  • Cross-cultural leaders demonstrate cultural sensitivity, flexibility, and empathy to bridge cultural divides and leverage the strengths of diverse teams.

Authentic Leadership

  • /ɔːˈθɛntɪk ˈliːdərʃɪp/
  • A leadership style characterized by genuineness, transparency, and alignment between personal values, beliefs, and actions, inspiring trust, credibility, and followership.
  • Lãnh đạo chân thành
  • Authentic leaders lead with integrity, stay true to themselves, and build meaningful connections based on trust and mutual respect.

Adaptive Leadership

  • /əˈdæptɪv ˈliːdərʃɪp/
  • A leadership style that emphasizes flexibility, creativity, and resilience in navigating complex and rapidly changing environments, adjusting strategies and behaviors to address emerging challenges and opportunities.
  • Lãnh đạo thích ứng
  • Adaptive leaders encourage experimentation and learning, embracing change as a catalyst for growth and innovation.

Strategic Leadership

  • /ˈstrætɪdʒɪk ˈliːdərʃɪp/
  • A leadership style focused on setting direction, formulating strategies, and aligning resources and capabilities to achieve long-term organizational goals and competitive advantage.
  • Lãnh đạo chiến lược
  • Strategic leaders anticipate market trends, anticipate opportunities and threats, and guide the organization in making informed decisions to stay ahead of the competition.

Team Leadership

  • /tiːm ˈliːdərʃɪp/
  • A leadership approach that emphasizes collaboration, communication, and cohesion among team members to achieve common objectives, leveraging the strengths and diversity of the team.
  • Lãnh đạo nhóm
  • Team leaders facilitate teamwork, foster a positive team culture, and motivate individuals to work together towards shared goals.

Participative Leadership

  • /pɑːˈtɪsɪpətɪv ˈliːdərʃɪp/
  • A leadership style that encourages involvement, input, and decision-making by team members, fostering a sense of ownership, commitment, and accountability.
  • Lãnh đạo tham gia
  • Participative leaders value the perspectives and contributions of their team members, leveraging collective intelligence to make better decisions and solve problems.

Emotional Intelligence

  • /ɪˈmoʊʃənəl ˌɪnˈtɛlɪdʒəns/
  • The ability to recognize, understand, and manage one's own emotions and those of others, influencing interpersonal relationships, communication, and decision-making.
  • Trí tuệ cảm xúc
  • Leaders with high emotional intelligence can inspire trust, resolve conflicts, and motivate others effectively.

Cross-Cultural Leadership

  • /krɒsˈkʌltʃərəl ˈliːdərʃɪp/
  • A leadership approach that acknowledges and navigates cultural differences and diversity within teams or organizations, adapting communication and leadership styles to foster inclusivity and effectiveness.
  • Lãnh đạo đa văn hóa
  • Cross-cultural leaders demonstrate cultural sensitivity, flexibility, and empathy to bridge cultural divides and leverage the strengths of diverse teams.


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